Monday, September 30, 2019


I express my sincere gratitude to the Almighty God for his protection and guidance through the attachment period. I will humbly acknowledge the management and staff of Sunyani Regional Hospital Records Department, especially to Mr. Peter Amponsah Manu, Madam Elizerbeth kyeraah as the Supervisors at Medical Records Department and Mr. Sanyo, the senior manager of Live Records for their guidance, encouragement and also the knowledge impacted which has been a great help. Finally, I would like to thank my parent and family for your support both in prayers and financially throughout this attachment period, for your encouragement and all who helped in diverse ways to make this attachment successful. I say God richly bless you. DEDICATION I dedicate this report to Jesus Christ for his divine inspiration and motivation. Secondly, I dedicate this report to my mother Madam Grace Akosua Krah and loved ones who through their cordial relationship made this attachment and report a success. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Industrial attachment is one of the requirements needed in order to obtain the Higher National Diploma (HND) Certificate as instituted by the National Accreditation Board. It is a well structured skill training programme forming part of the approved academic standard intended for students to involve themselves, gain practical, managerial and or hand-on experience that pertains the area of course of studies. It also gives the student chance to solve real world problems. For the first two years in school, students have to spend their second semester vacation going through the industrial attachment. Students are required to cumulatively spend a minimum of 24 weeks on the practical industrial training in order to qualify as HND graduates. OBJECTIVE OF THE INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT As part of the education reform programme, the polytechnics are upgraded to a tertiary level to provide training and the needed skills to meet the nation’s professional, scientific and technological needs. However, industrial attachment programme has been attached to the academic curriculum where Higher National Diploma (HND) students are allowed to undergo industrial training to enable us to be more enlightened with what is happening in our present day environment to build upon what has been learnt in school. Hence HND students of the Polytechnics are required to serve an attachment with various organizations and write a report to the institution. This attachment in one way or the other creates job opportunities if the participant puts up their best behavior and efforts during their stay in the organization which they could be recommended for a company after their three year courses. It is for this reason that I undertook an industrial attachment at Sunyani Regional Hospital, for two months (from 27th May 2013 to 26th July 2013) at the Medical Records Department. BRIEF HISTORY OF SUNYANI REGIONAL HOSPITAL Sunyani Regional hospital is an ultra- modern hospital which was established in May 2003 and it is located on the Barracks-Techiman road. The hospital was initially opened in 1928 but its bed capacity was around 150. From 1969 to 1972, the then Busia government realized the need for a larger and structurally better hospital the Region and started the construction of the Doctors bungalows, Nursing training college and Nurses quarters to secure the human resource requirement. Dr. Asare said â€Å"after the exist of Busia government in 1972 the project laid of f. In 1983 and 1990 Nanasunyanihene and Dr. C.J Oppong sent several memos and petitions to the succeeding minister of Health on the need for a new Regional Hospital.† Regional capitals like Cape Coast, Ho and Sunyani were announced by the N.D. C government in 1993 to be built to standard and their aim was achieved in 2003 but was named after Prof. John Evans Atta Mills. The hospital is situated on a leveled ground and share boundaries with Penkwase in east and Nkwabeng North in the north. It covers about 450 hectres of land. VISION STATEMENT OF R.H.S To provide a model secondary health care facility for best clinical practice in the country and beyond and also provide the highest quality health care consistent with the service standard. â€Å"We hope to maintain the equipment, estate and other facilities in the hospital to gain the accolade as one of the cleanest, neatest and customer-friendly hospital in Africa.† Said by Dr. Mohammed Bin Ibrahim the Regional Director of Ghana Health Service. MISSION STATEMENT OF R.H.S The main thrust of the health care delivery over years has been to â€Å"improve the overall health status and reduce inequalities in health outcome of the people†. DEPARTMENTS / SECTIONS/UNIT ADMISTRATION. The administration is headed by the administrator who is the next in command after the medical doctor. He administers or checks the  incoming and outgoings of all working and non working staffs of the hospital, new and old suppliers, etc. His ascent on needed requested item or letter permits a transaction between the hospital(procurement unit, account office and suppliers) or activity to take place at the hospital ACCOUNT DEPARTMENT The account unit is responsible for the payments business transactions approved by the doctor and the administrator and the proper accounting of all moneys received or sent out of the hospitals account. The calculation of the total bills of drugs and non drugs to patients after quality health care delivery to enable the hospital claim their money from the government(national health insurance scheme Centre PHARMACY. The pharmacy is where drugs are been distributed to all patient with and without national health insurance card based on the drugs being prescribed by either the doctor or the health assistance in the hospital . LIVE RECORDS. This is where patients folders are stored , retrieved, filed and analyzed in the hospital for easy identification of patient folder , sickness and total turn out of patients at the hospital within a period of time. OUT- PATIENT DEPARTMENT. This is also the place where all patient with and without the insurance cards check their blood pressure before they see the doctor or the health assistance of the hospital. PROCUREMENT/STORES Lastly, this is where the procurement officers/store keeper invites quotation, evaluate and appraise suppliers with the help of the doctor, administrator . Purchases of items are also done by this department and later issues are made to the various departments within the hospital based on their requisitions in their order books according to their needs to the stores department. It  is also responsible for the control and management of all stock. MAJOR ACTIVITIES The hospital provides the following services to staff and their families as well as other organizations and the organizations the general public: a. Outpatient. b. Inpatient. c. Laboratory. d. Dispensary. e. Maternity and delivery. f. Medicare. g. General surgery. h. A N C/P N C. i. Ultrasound Scan. j. Family planning. k. Public health services. l. Ophthalmic care. m. E N T. n. Ambulance. o. Child welfare clinic. p. Ophthalmic Care. CHAPTER TWO NATURE OF WORK DONE AT MEDICAL RECORDS DEPARTMENT / OUT – PATIENT DEPARTMENT (O.P.D) During my industrial attachment at Sunyani Regional Hospital, I was posted to Medical Records Department which constitutes the Out -Patient Department (O.P.D), Filing room and Live Records. At those Departments, the descriptions of nature of work done are categorized under the following: a. Entering patient data in temporal cards. b. Entering information in folders. c. Detecting barcodes of folders and O. P. D numbers. d. Detecting active and inactive insured patient. e. Retrieving of patients folders. f. Registration of new patients. g. Registration of private companies. h. Arranging and sorting of folders on the shelves. i. Tallying of Out-Patient Department attendance. j. Entering daily ward states in Microsoft excel. k. Entering the monthly statistical diagnosis in Microsoft excel. l. Filling of claim forms. DETAILED ACCOUNT OF THE TRAINING/WORK PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT. ENTERING PATIENT DATA IN TEMPORAL CARDS [T.C]: This are cards issued to patients as their first visit in hospital to take medical treatment, with their names, ages, date of birth, contact address, insurance numbers etc and also they are giving Identification cards with numbers to have access to their temporal cards. ENTERING PATIENT INFORMATION FOLDERS: Patients who’s Temporal Cards are full with history, are assigned by Doctors to retrieve folders from the Out- Patient Department (O.P.D) before treatment which was my duty. DETECTING BARCODES OF FOLDERS AND O.P.D NUMBERS: Internet application software likes e-Archive and Hams are used at the Out-Patient Department (O.P.D) in detecting the barcodes of folders when patient issue their Identification Cards with O. P. D numbers. When patient displace their cards, I use their insurance numbers or sur names to search for their O. P. D numbers for them to reach their fol ders before medication. DETECTING ACTIVE AND INACTIVE INSURED PATIENT: All patients insured are to issue their National Health Insurance I.D cards for verification of either active or inactive by using Oracle internet application software at the O. P. D before they consult the Doctors. RETRIEVING OF PATIENT FOLDERS: This involves picking of folders of patient from the folder shelves using their barcodes and Out Patient Department (O.P.D) numbers on their hospital cards. After picking the folder, you enter the name of patient and the O.P.D number in the Admissions and Discharges register before you give the folder to the patient and later proceed to make entries into the computer at the filing room. REGISTRATION OF NEW PATIENTS: Patients who has just come to the hospital for the first time are registered  by the use of HAMS. Their details like their names, gender, age and Home address are recorded in the new case records book. Also, through interviews, relevant information like date of birth, marriage status, religion, contact number, Postal address, including others are recorded in the folder and given an O. P. D number folder number. A hospital card bearing the patient name, O.P.D number, date of registration is made, added to the new folder and handed over to p atient only when he or she comes to the hospital. A SAMPLE OF PATIENT OF FOLDER REGISTRATION OF PRIVATE COMPANIES. Currently, Sunyani Regional Hospital has approved services to private Insurance companies such as Premier Health Care, MEDI- X Health System, Nationwide Mutual Health Care, Newmont Gold Ghana Limited, and among other private insurance company. Registration of patients with private insurance card is done by recording the name of the patients, date of birth, insurance number ,age, gender, name of scheme , claim number, Hospital Record number of patient are recorded in private insurance form or claim form book before a company patients can received a Medical Services. ARRANGING AND SORTING OF FOLDERS: Sorting of folders implies arranging folders in order by using their barcode numbers and O. P. D numbers on the shelves in the filing room after the patients has been treated. TALLYING OF OUT- PATIENT DEPARTMENT ATTENDANCE: This process was done at the Live Records to assist the hospital know the number of patients attendance. The Tally Sheet is categorized into male and female and ages, t hus 0-4years, 4-10years, 10-18years, 18-30years,†¦ 60years and above including the total on sheet before entries are made Microsoft Excel. ENTERING DAILY WARD STATES IN MICROSOFT EXCEL :The Daily Ward State like number of Admissions, Discharges, Bed occupancy in wards such as Accident and Emergency (A and E),Male/Female medical, Male/Female surgical, Male/Female ward etc were entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet at Bio-statistics/Live records. ENTERING THE MONTHLY STATISTICAL DIAGNOSIS IN MICROSOFT EXCEL: After the summary of Diagnoses recorded at each ward or clinic in the monthly morbidity book, the data is entered in Microsoft excel spreadsheet, the sheet is grouped into  gender, age and in diseases like Eye cataracts, Reflective eye, U T I, Malaria, Anemia in pregnancy, polio, scrotal diseases, cardio respiratory diseases etc, after the is data cross examined it is link to Ghana Statistical web. CHAPTER THREE A. NEW KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ACQUIRED, AND CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED NEW KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ACQUIRED AT MEDICAL RECORDS DEPARTMENT. My presence at the Medical Record Department, I acquired so many skills and new knowledge of which are helpful in my studies. Among these are: (a) I develop a good human relationship with staffs and patients. (b) The programme made my typing speed to increase when entering data. (c) It enhances my technology when workings with Microsoft excel spreadsheet especially dealing with calculations. (d) I had ability to work overtime and withstand any pressure with presence or absence of staffs. (e) I acquire knowledge and experience in working different internet application soft wares. (f) More skills were gain in filling of different claim forms and how to register prisoners before medication. CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED AT MEDICAL RECORDS DEPARTMENT. Sometimes, three or four staff from various sections may come to the Health record room at a go all requesting for their folders. Since I was not perfect with the location of almost all the folders in the room, I had to struggle in other to serve them. I had to adjust to sitting and working at the same place for eight hours which was quite difficult and stressful because I had to follow strictly to the procedure at work by reporting very early and closing in the evening. My shirts get dirty anytime I work in the filing room. The folders are always dusty so when retrieving and filing them on the shelves makes my shirts become dusty. I had to wake up at dawn in other to join the company’s bus; if I miss the bus then I have to use my own money as transportation. Feeding was a big  blow on me, because the staffs were fed whilst the attachment trainees were not. B. CONTRIBUTION OF STUDENT TO ORGANIZATION During my industrial training Sunyani Regional Hospital, I participated in almost every activity that was undertaken at the medical record department which included; Issuing barcodes numbers on newly patient folders. Filing of folders into their respective position on shelves at the filing room. Filling of claim forms at the O. P. D. Entering of daily ward states in Microsoft excel.  Books, folders and other necessities needed at out-patient department to record data were pulled on wheel from the stores. C. GENERAL COMMENTS, OBSERVATION AND IMPRESSION GENERAL COMMENTS. Upon all the challenges I adopted new skills in working overtime with both senior and junior staffs. I had ability to work without anybodies supervision at the field of work. More experience and technology was attained in any section or department I was posted to. OBSERVATIONS. I observed the following during my period of attachment that: The management of the hospital for instance the Medical Record Department is keeping good records. Computers available at their disposal, those not meet the so called â€Å"standard computerized hospital.† The compound of the Hospital is enticing especially the lawns, building structure and location of the Nursing Training College. Quality food is given to the patients on sick bed with good health care delivery. Marketing of shoes, perfumes, ladies tops etc is done by some staffs, and feeding is inadequate to meet all staffs. Mixing of patients folders. After treatment all folders are kept in the filing room but patients may be after their folders for treatment but can not find them. IMPRESSION. I was so impressed of how the supervisors welcome me and trained me to be equipped on the field of work. Also, I wonder how the staffs socialized themselves with me; patients may think I am a permanent staff. CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION School authorities should create more avenues for attachment trainees because it aid students to be well equipped in the field of work. It also serves as a field where students put into practice of the theoretical aspect leant from school. It should be encourage as far as Higher National Diploma is concerned. RECOMMENDATION. I recommend that staffs who market at the hospital should be prohibited. Attachment trainees should be motivated. I also recommend that proper measures should be taking in keeping patients folders. Lastly, food should be equally distributed to all staffs at the Hospital.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Charlottetown Conference

The Charlottetown Conference By the early 1860s, the British colonies of North America were considering the benefits of a union. The American Civil War had created a new military power and a renewed threat to the small, divided colonies to the north. And British public opinion had been in favour of reducing, if not eliminating government spending in North America, especially for defence. In September 1864, British North American politicians met in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island to discuss the possibility of a union. (Courtesy of the National Archives of Canada)In September 1864, the Atlantic provinces – Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Newfoundland – organized a conference to discuss a union among themselves. Governor General Monck asked that the province of Canada be invited to their talks, â€Å"to ascertain whether the proposed Union might not be made to embrace the whole of British North American Provinces. † Canada's most prominent p oliticians journeyed down the St. Lawrence River on a 191-ton steamer, with $13,000 of champagne in its hold, to attend the conference in Prince Edward Island. Those on board included John A.Macdonald, and George Brown from Upper Canada and George-Etienne Cartier, Thomas D'Arcy McGee and Alexander Galt from Lower Canada. Each journeyed to Charlottetown with a different motive in mind. Cartier felt that if he could persuade the Maritimes to join in a union, together their population would balance that of Upper Canada. In contrast, Brown wanted an end to what he considered French domination of English affairs – the end of a political stalemate. Macdonald was worried about American aggression and felt that the united British colonies, perhaps, could resist their powerful neighbour.In the 1860s, John A. Macdonald was instrumental in creating the Dominion of Canada and became its first prime minister. (Courtesy of the National Archives of Canada) The group of eight cabinet ministe rs and three secretaries arrived in Charlottetown on the same day as Slaymaker's and Nichol's Olympic Circus, the first circus to visit the island in 20 years. The harbour was deserted with most of the town at the circus. The delegates to the conference soon formed a different, political circus with a marathon of speeches, protests, lobster lunches, resolutions, picnics, alliances, flirtations and champagne balls.On the first official day of the conference, Macdonald spoke at length about the benefits of a union of all of British North America. The next day, Galt – a businessman, finance minister, and railway promoter – presented a well-researched description of the financial workings of such a union. On the third day, George Brown discussed the legal structure. And on the fourth day, McGee praised the nationalist identity, one that he saw bolstered by a vivid Canadian literature. Prominent politician George-Etienne Cartier was the leading spokesman for French Canada d uring Confederation negotiations. Courtesy of the National Archives of Canada) The original intent of the conference to discuss a Maritime union was overwhelmed by talk of a larger union. In a matter of days the Maritimers and Canadians had persuaded each other to create a new federation. The delegates were giddy with success and the celebration party continued in Halifax, Saint John and Fredericton. But the terms of the union remained to be worked out – a daunting political task. The delegates agreed to meet again in Quebec City the following month.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Construction Safety Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 13

Construction Safety - Assignment Example Common training programs for workers are essential for them to read safety regulations from the same script. This facilitates commonality in performing safety techniques. The other is clear separation of duties or even space among the different contractors. This will ensure that workers of one company specialize in what they are doing without undue influence from others. There is need to have common points of reporting emergencies so as to promote orderly rescue or corrective measures. This goes a long way in minimizing casualties or fatalities. Contractors need to come up with collective minimum safety requirements at the site for there to be uniform standards. This goes helps in promoting high safety standards and monitoring. There should be a plan to minimize material and equipment congestion. According to Rojas (2009), contractors should bring only materials that are necessary while equipments can be shared under clear agreements to avoid congestion that increases chances of

Friday, September 27, 2019

Media Scan Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Media Scan - Assignment Example Survival can improve if the patient receives early supportive care with symptomatic treatment and rehydration. Although the world lacks a licensed treatment for the virus, scientists are developing a range of immunological, blood and drug therapies to help combat the virus. Ebola- an Ongoing Crisis, is an article that explores the recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea in March 2014. Although the world thought that the virus outbreak would soon be over, it increased over the summer and spread widely to other countries around such as Nigeria, DRC, and Senegal. The outbreak led to more identified cases and deaths than all previous Ebola outbreaks combined. It adversely affected commerce, transport, and daily healthcare. The world was in fear due to the virus outbreak since it does not respect the social status and borders. Health organizations strived to collaborate in efforts of combating the disease, such as allowing vaccine trials to proceed. The reader will be aware that although it is difficult to eradicate Ebola virus outbreaks completely, tracing and isolation of contacts of patients with Ebola virus will enhance curbing of Ebola cases. NIH researchers report promising results in prevention and treatment of Ebola virus disease. (2015).  NIH MedlinePlus,  9(4), 28. Retrieved from Sajdik, M. (2015, February 5). Prevent the Next Ebola Pandemic By Investing in Better Health Care Systems - US News [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Exam questions of macroeconomics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Exam questions of macroeconomics - Essay Example Thus when there is trade barriers applied they protect the producers of goods and services from competing in the international market. It obstructs easy trade flows between countries. The importance of free trade in a globalized world economy can be seen from the following distinct advantages resulting from free trade. Free trade enables the countries to concentrate and increase the production of those goods and services in which they possess the comparative advantages in terms of economies in cost of production. With the kind of specialization in different products the countries are able to enjoy the economies of scale and this largely reflects in the final prices to the international consumers. The indulgence in international trade results in the enlargement of the market for the firm. The increase in market size lowers the average production cost and enhances the productivity of the firms. When there is increase in the international trade the world economy also gets a boost towards growth. Another distinct advantage that is very important for the world economy is the improvement in efficiency of the production processes which leads to a proper allocation of available resources. The more efficient use of resources automatically leads to increased productivity. A higher output in terms of goods and services is another distinct advantage resulting from free trade. The efficient allocation of resources in the individual countries contribute to the growth of the world economy as there will be an all round increase in production of goods and services which can flow between different countries without any restriction. The removal or reduction of tariffs and taxes will increase the benefits available to the consumers in different countries of the world. Because of the expanded market there will be increased competition among trades which will improve the quality of the goods and services which

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Human Resource Management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Human Resource Management - Case Study Example This paper has a recommendation on the best strategy that the business organization needs to employ in China, for purposes of achieving success. In trying to analyze the market performance of Dairy Queen, this paper looks at three management theories; namely contingency, systems and chaos theories. This paper analyzes the marketing department of Dairy Queen, for it is the one which is responsible for the sales that occur in China. Dairy Queen is a chain of fast food restaurants that are under the ownership of International Dairy Queen Inclusive (Douglas, 2012). The company began its operations in 1940 in the state of Illinois. By 1947, the company had over 100 stores, and as of 2010, Dairy Queen has more than 5700 stores all over the world. The largest store of the company is found in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, while the store that records the highest sales is found in Canada. The company is a pioneer of fast food franchising, and it believes in the exploitation of the emerging markets (B enner and Nelson, 2012). China is an example of such an emerging market. On this basis therefore, this paper tries to explore its marketing strategies in China, and examine the reasons as to why they failed. The Story: On 10th of February 2012, Dairy Queen opened its 500th store in Hu Dong, the financial capital of Shanghai. Dairy Queen first joined the Chinese market in 1991 by opening a branch in Beijing. Ever since entering the Chinese market, the company has experienced growth in terms of its profitability, and market share. China presents the largest market for its ice cream products. The company charged with the responsibility of operating Dairy Queen Franchise products is referred to as Shanghai Shida Catering and Management Company (Benner and Nelson, 2012). On this basis therefore, Dairy Queen operates in China as a franchise. In regard to this therefore, in order to penetrate the Chinese market, Dairy Queen resorted to building strategic alliances with local company. An ex ample is the Shanghai Catering Company. John Gainor, the President of Dairy Queen international agrees with this position, and denotes that it is the major contributor of its successes in the Chinese market (Douglas, 2012). However, it is important to denote that despite the successes of Dairy Queen in capturing a segment of the Chinese market, it is not the number one ice cream consumption company in China. Dairy Queen faces stiff competition from companies such as Nestle, Walls, Haagen Daz, and Baskin Robbins. It is important to denote that Haagen Daz is one of the biggest ice cream consuming companies in China (Lewis and Packard, 2012). Dairy Queen also fails to compete effectively with the Chinese domestic companies in the low end market areas. The Ice Cream consumption habits of the Chinese are dependent on their ability to afford consuming them at luxurious cafes (Aoki, 2012). Majority of the Chinese cannot afford to buy these products at such luxurious cafes, and hence their desire for ice cream products from their local companies. This is because they are affordable, and tailored to meet their needs. On this basis, if Dairy Queen needs to capture this market, which is the largest, then it has to revise its marketing strategies (Kotler and Keller, 2012). It has to develop products that satisfy the needs of both the high end, and the low end consumers. The Three Theories: There are three main theories that will

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Theories of Power Transfer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Theories of Power Transfer - Essay Example Survival is the driving force, thus, states must develop their offensive capabilities to increase their power. As a reflection of this selfishness, and to ensure their own survival, states seek to develop their offensive capabilities, or their military power, so that they can take over the territories of other states to increase their relative power. This means that their power is relative, that is, in relation to the other states (Fozouni, 2008). In the international system, the principal actors are the sovereign states, where the independent influence of international organizations, sub-states or trans-state actors is dismissed. Nationalism is important, while the importance of sub-national groupings or transnational ideological of cultural groupings are diminished. This theory has several key assumptions. Neorealism is based primarily on the assumption that mankind is selfish and competitive. It is not benevolent, rather it is self-centered. Its fundamental assumption is that the international system is chaotic and anarchic. Since the state is the primary actor, there is no higher governing authority to which they bow to. States must muddle through in their relations with each other, with no higher authority that can impose or dictate on any one of them. That is, there is no such thing as a world government. Furthermore, it assumes that sovereign states are the primary actors and not international institutions, non-government organizations, or multinational corporations. According to this theory, every state is a rational actor who will always watch out for its own interest and ensure its security. In the pursuit of its own security, every state will do everything to build up its resources, so that more resources will mean more power for the s tate. Their level of power will determine their relations with other states, and this level of power is in turn determined by its military and economic capabilities. Also, states are inherently aggressive, always seeking to expand its territories. This territorial aggression is only tempered by other states. However, this build-up will trigger an increase in the opposing state's security, which will result in relative gains only (Thies, 2004). In terms of the European Union, this means that the Community itself, is merely a gathering of sovereign states - an international rather than supranational organization. Thus, the decision-making in terms of economic, monetary, political, and security matters is still in the sovereign states. Ultimate authority and power will remain with the member states. Thus, the Community is merely a reflection of the desires of the member states to cede or delegate authority, which they can easily recall or revoke. The primary reason that the Community appears to be integrated is because the member states feel that this will serve their interests best. Neorealists view the Community of the future as a loose integration of the member states who have agreed to surrender or pool their sovereignty. Neoliberalism As a response to neorealism, the neoliberalism was born. Some label this as Thatcherism (United Kingdom), Reaganomics (United States of America), Economic Rationalism (Australia), Rogernomics (New Zealand) or Manmohanomics (India). Neoliberalism describes a movement away from the state control. In its pure form, this theory centers on

Monday, September 23, 2019

That which is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded Essay - 3

That which is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow. Consider knowledge issues raised by this statement in two areas of knowledge - Essay Example Clearly, from all indications, society is dynamic. Cultures change and people change in different timeframes. Thus, it is apparent that as time changes, what is regarded as true in one era might not be taken as accurate or correct in another generation. Culture refers to the way a group of people live and carry out their activities. Schabracq identifies that cultural change and knowledge have a symbiotic relationship2. This is because as knowledge increases in a given community or society, the way they do things and the way they perceive things also changes. This is because the worldview of a given people is based on their understanding of the world at every point in time. And this defines their values, norms and morals at every given point in time. This indicates that culture knowledge is bound to also change as the culture changes. This is because in a situation where a nations culture changes, what they define as â€Å"truth† will also change. This implies that the views and ideas of people are tied to the dominant culture and the dominant views of doing things. In the Western world today, people who were defined as deviant and illegals for their indulgence in same-sex affairs 50 years were humiliated and demeaned in the society. This is because the society had the belief that same sex activities were evil and defined as wrong by the dominant rules of the society. Many people were forced to seek treatments and others were discriminated against. However, due to changes in what these people call the â€Å"truth† or â€Å"knowledge†, the Western world has increasingly taken an acceptive approach to same sex partnerships. This shows that there is a trend towards changes and modification in a given society and this changes the definition of knowledge from time to time. The advances in knowledge and understanding of concepts and ideas puts an obligation on the authorities in a given sector to discard previous knowledge and take

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Housing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Housing - Essay Example An increasing number of broken and desolate homes because of desertion by a husband and wife are directly traceable in many cases to intolerable housing conditions. The plane of sexual morality is likely to be lower in areas of poor housing. Self respect is broken down slowly due to lack of privacy and indiscriminate intermingling of the sexes increases the tendency to delinquency. A low standard of housing is one of the important factors in the problems arising of child neglect. Most of the wards of social agencies come from areas of poor housing. Moreover, areas of poor housing do not meet their full share of the tax burden. The rate is already low because of the exemptions to dwellings assessed at less $2000 and collections are not as good as in the areas of better. Poor housing and slum conditions are not local problems. They have become national problems and solutions are needed. Factors that lead to poor housing include institutional racism. This is due to ethnic minorities not being able to access owner occupation. Single people may usually have less potential to raise a mortgage or secure a market rent without being dependant on benefits. Likewise, low income households tend to be marginalized into the lower end of the private sector. The homeless frequently require social, educational and welfare support. They are further disadvantaged when placed in temporary accommodation where poor housing standards and community facilities compound their situation. There is a physical shortage of suitable dwellings since the 1980’s and 1990’s which have favored the private sector as a housing provider according to Bruce (1997). The issue arising from too much demand and too little supply of houses has resulted in increased low quality housing. With benefits being paid to landlords regardless of conditions, there is little fiscal incentive for landlords to invest in their properties. Solution to poor housing Deregulation of rents and tenancies has trap ped many tenants within the sector long-term hence making tenants increasingly marginalized from mainstream society. Such issues reinforce the argument that housing regeneration and promoting healthier housing is not just about living accommodation or unemployment. It is also about the complex interrelationship of social exclusion, abandonment of inner-city areas and current lifestyle that make up the bottom end of the private rented sector. The combination effect of these social issues cannot be stressed strongly enough. Housing and health are both key issues. Access to poor housing generally results from disadvantage which frequently results in access to poor housing and therefore poor health. Economic conditions have partly hidden this fact because there has been much doubling up and overcrowding. If people could manage to secure a reasonably full employment, it is projected that more than 25000 residents could secure better dwelling places according to Coakley (2005). In order t o solve this vice, there have been housing programs established to transform living conditions, improving educational facilities to furnish the human kind to live in better conditions. There were also family therapy sessions to create a better understanding among families according to Linesch (2005). However, these have never proceeded on a coordinated basis of development. Housing measures have greatly fluctuated at the whims of legislative bodies. There are efforts by some government bodies that are dedicated to

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Ebonics & Education Essay Example for Free

Ebonics Education Essay The Ebonics controversy in America has developed into a major conflict over the years. It has become a more serious concern within the public school system. The complex where the nation’s school systems lower their expectations of black youth to coincide with the patterns of Ebonics, the word used to refer to African American Vernacular English, has resulted in an epidemic where blacks graduate from High School reading three grade levels below their white counterparts. For the multiple number of theories that attempt to explain this phenomenon, very few have been able to counter the adverse culture that has developed in America as a product of Ebonics being considered a valid dialect. A wide range of theorists and politicians have used the American educational system as a platform on which to gain civil approval. There is a popular consensus that income designates the quality of one’s education in America. This state of socioeconomic prejudice has a detrimental effect on the face of our society. It can be argued that a single standard curriculum should be equally implemented and taught throughout the nation, and that this curriculum should be similar to the elite executive curriculum, which Jean Anyon identifies as the best education our country has to offer in her article Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work. She identifies how many believe that private and public sector schools should be merged together, along with their curriculums (2006). She breaks down education into two curriculums, upper class and lower class, or working and executive class. Equalizing the differences between these two forms of education has always been the job of standardized testing. Initially standardized testing in America was used to asses one’s calculative ability. It is now being replaced, starting at the middle school level, with a format that revolves around authentic assessment (Wiggins, 1990). Authentic assessment is the direct evaluation of student performance through tasks that exercise their intellect. The tests are also known to evaluate creativity, listening and comprehension skills, experimental research in science, speaking and discussion skills and historical inquiry. It has been designed to replace traditional standardized testing, which means it eventually will be used in all schools across the nation to identify the intellectual elite. This is considered to be a major advent in education that will counter act the nation’s stigma of low expectations ushered in by the validation of Ebonics. A major cause of the low expectations placed on black youth in schools can partly be credited to those doing the research, as Kimberly Griffin points out in her article Striving for Success: A Qualitative Exploration of Competing Theories of High-Achieving Black College Students Academic Motivation, when she says, research on the academic performance of Black students has focused on low-achievers, framing their academic motivation as maladaptive and driven by externally (e. g. , competition or compliance) rather than internally (e. g. love of learning) generated forces (Griffin, 2006). This heavy focus on those blacks who have low quality achievement, has led to a neglect in the understanding of what drives the higher achieving students to be successful. Findings show that self-determination theory, socio-cognitive theory, and attribution theory cannot individually explain the motivation of these Black high-achievers. Instead, a multidimensional framework that incorporates all three models and that highlights internal and external sources of motivation best accounts for these students experiences (Griffin, 2006). Griffin goes on to cite an interview with a young black student that was less affluent than others. The dialogue reveals that the pressure of stereotypes and low expectations has a weighing effect on the level of effort and achievement that black students have in the class room. This is a stigma that is present whether the student is of a lower or higher class, but the lower the class of the student the even heavier the stereotypes are that weigh on them. I think probably intrinsically I might have felt at one point that I needed to try harder, because I was Black, to not be a stereotype . . . not just chill, you know, talk with Ebonics or stuff like—the stereotype that people have of Black people. I purposely try to steer away from that. I think thats certainly definitely, in a certain respect, thats true (Griffin, 2006). This pressure that stems from the inherent stereotypes perpetuated through the use of Ebonics is even further enhanced by a misunderstanding of this complex between the students and their teachers. Griffin points this out as well when she says, the fact that many [teacher education] students do not share the same ethnic, social, racial and linguistic backgrounds as their students may lead to cultural incongruencies in the classroom which can mediate against educational effectiveness( Griffin, 2006). It is Griffin’s belief that these incompatibilities between the black students and their predominantly white teachers results in a complex to be maladaptive, in a way that is very evident. These incompatibilities are evident in value orientation, behavioral norms and expectations and styles, social interactions, self presentation, communication and cognitive processing (Griffin, 2006). Griffin’s article proves that even the system through which these students are studied for the purpose of better improving their achievement is a vicious cycle itself filled with misunderstandings and blatant neglect of the methods that may actually be successful, specifically teaching methods like andragogy and reflective learning. Androgogy and reflective learning are two educational forms that have become very prevalent at the collegiate level. They are considered to be the two best teaching methods in educating adults. This has been found to be specifically true for pre-med and science majors in college, due to andragogy’s focus on authentic assessment (Kolb 2001, p. 1975). Authentic assessment is the direct evaluation of student performance through tasks that exercise their intellect. These evaluations tend to exercise their: creativity, listening and comprehension skills, experimental research in science, speaking and discussion skills and historical inquiry. It largely corresponds with standardized testing (Kolb 2001, p. 1975). Authentic assessment asks that students acquire knowledge and be able to practice logic as apposed to just being able to regurgitate pre-fed facts. The main characteristics of these evaluations, is that they apply standardized test curriculum to real life circumstances. Authentic assessment is the product of a reform in education. This shift is to make standardized testing less drill oriented and applicable to what is expected will be necessary in the students’ adult life. These tests hold students to higher standards as well as create a growing body of accurate awareness pertaining to student learning. This way the teacher learns from the student as well. The key argument these test pose is that for the traditional testing method, the right answers are not rationales. This basically acknowledges that the level of logic required for traditional standardized tests is lacking. This is due to a relationship that involves test takers who simply cram for their tests, and instructors who feel the tests have no relevance to their teaching ability. This is a common occurrence that has resulted in resentment for traditional standardized testing on the behalf of both parties involved. Authentic assessment is a genuine push towards the implementation of more authentic tasks. Instructors find it easier to apply these tasks to their curriculum and students find it easier to assess what is expected of them. It is considered a form of improving overall performance, in a testing system traditionally structured solely to monitor it. This fault in western education is the main catalyst for shifts in standardized testing that focus more on authentic assessment and experiential learning. Medical students and students pursuing the sciences, like psychology or sociology, are expected to have certain skills appropriate for the practice of their profession. This requires a form of learning that can assesses curriculum and then apply it to real life situations. As well as the medical and science field, andragogy and reflective learning is being used to enhance the productivity of multimillion dollar corporations. Experiential learning thus involves a, direct encounter with the phenomena being studied rather than merely thinking about the encounter, or only considering the possibility of doing something about it. (Borzak 1981: 9 quoted in Brookfield 1983). This sort of learning is sponsored by an institution and might be used on training programmes for professions such as social work and teaching or in field study programmes such as those for social administration or geography courses. Kolb, David A. , ‘david a. kolb on experiential learning’ Kolb breaks down understanding of experiential learning into an understanding of the American educational systems use of the field trip and project based learning (Kolb 2001, p. 1975). While project based learning is considered to be one of the best methods of learning for all individuals because it promotes authentic assessment, and thus provides young black students especially to expand their understanding of the Western culture from which they have been systematically alienated, it is also very expensive to organize. Anyon discovers that the majority of contemporary textbook instruction is designed for the working class. PBL programs are usually not supported in public schools because of the amount of funding they require. This discrepancy is usually applicable to public schools and whether one is located near high income housing or low income housing. Jonathan Kozol describes the discrepancies between these two types of schooling in his interview with Marge Scherer. In the interview titled, On Savage Inequalities: A Conversation with Jonathan Kozol, he talks about his experience in St. Louis and how the schools in low income areas, which are predominantly black, barely have money for water, while the schools near by in the wealthier districts could buy advanced school supplies as well as carryout project based learning, such as field trips. Kozol credits this problem to the use of property tax to fund schools in low income areas. He states: we ought to finance the education of every child in America equitably, with adjustments made only for the greater or lesser needs of certain children. And that funding should all come from the collective wealth of our society, mainly from a steeply graduated progressive income tax. (Kozol) This particular tax could make project based learning more affordable, which would be the most influential step to improving classroom education. The most common contemporary example of PBL is dissecting insects and animals. It has become an American tradition and almost a right of passage in high school. Project Based Management has a very beneficial influence on the education of our country. One might wonder why it’s not the only curriculum used. The use of chaperones, instructional tools, and methods of transportation are often required and considered expensive. The benefit is that people tend to remember more from their field trips than textbook lessons and many of these labs require authentic assessment, which is good considering the new shift in standardized testing. The downfall is in the fact that authentic assessment is dependent on the student’s past experiences. This allows for some projects to result in the isolation of certain students. The inner city children are deprived because their school systems can’t afford implementing PBL curriculums. Chairperson of the Department of Education at Rutgers University, in her essay From Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work Jean Anyon analyzes the nature of underprivileged education. Anyon argues that depending on their social class, different levels of educations are available to young people. This mostly applies to schools in different districts and social communities and it can particularly be seen in the difference between private and public schooling. To make the concept clear, she further applies this to a description of a kind of mental segregation happening within the classroom; in which, students sitting next to one another are rewarded differently solely based on their socioeconomic standing in the community. She does this by pointing out that, students in different social-class backgrounds are rewarded for classroom behaviors that correspond to personality traits allegedly rewarded in the different occupational strata – the working classes for docility and obedience, the managerial classes for initiative and personal assertiveness. (Anyon) This is the key ideal of Anyon’s theory. An example of the theory at work can be seen in research that finds project based learning prepares students for more abstract assessment, and prepares them to handle real world situations, as opposed to those in the textbook. PBL is most prevalent in private and high income community public schools. This creates a system where the students taught in the private schools are taught to think independently in a rational but unconfined way, while the lower income children are only taught to follow instructions. These differing perspectives on education have had a controversial and conflicting history in America. Gary Colombo based much of his research on this conflict. Gary Colombo argues that the majority of the Founding Fathers were wealthy conservatives who were honestly opposed to democracy. This signifies them as an elitist class constructing laws that will better maintain their control of the government. Their initial goal was to keep power in the hands of the wealthy, and prevent the majority from realizing their strength. One major modern day justifications for this elitist view is that, these framers were the same men who risked their lives for the good of others by signing the declaration of independence, and they are getting what is owed to them. It is Garry Colombo’s view that these patriots did not intend to revolutionize democracy, but that their sole intention was to gain independence from Britain in order to get the country out of their pockets. Aware that the Constitution would be opposed by the working class, who made up the majority of the people, the construction of the deceleration and its signing were held in private. The media was used conceal the constitution’s actual goal, while at the same time to persuade people in its favor. Along with a literate media Colombo points out that the American government found it necessary, particularly during Thomas Jefferson’s presidency, to promote and finance a literate working class. It is Colombo’s view that the sole purpose of their education was to develop individuals who would maintain the nation. These educated individuals were viewed as secondary to their task. This is the first sign in American history of education being used to exploit people for the benefit of the government. By identifying the failure of Thomas Jefferson to educate the Native American people, Colombo shows that American education was initially designed with absolutely no regard for the people. He best displays this conflict when he cites a letter written by a Native American to the President. our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same with yours†¦several of our young people were formerly brought up at the college of the northern provinces they were instructed in all your sciences; but when they came back to us, they were bad runners; ignorant of every means of living in the woods; unable to bear either cold or hunger; knew neither how to build a cabin, take a deer, or kill an enemy†¦they were totally good for nothing. (Colombo) Here Colombo identifies that, quality in education is deemed only as good as its ability to assimilate one into the culture in which they live. This assimilation is not one that produces equal opportunity for its participants. As previously proven by Anyon, socioeconomic conditions impede this dream dramatically from coming into fruition. In sum, Anyon argues that today’s working class curriculums center more on teaching black students to follow instructions rather than teaching them how to authentically assess problems. She undeniably proves that the children of higher income families are not taught in this fashion, and they are steered more towards developing skills in problem solving and decision making. Ebonics only further expands this gap between classes, considering the level of stereotypes that come along with its practice and the powerfully influential stigma that blacks are subject to as a result. If students are subject to the exact same nationwide testing, it would only be just that they receive the same educational curriculums. By using Ebonics in the school system, the nation is alienating blacks from the main stream through both class and race. Lower income students are being herded into remedial work, while the upper class students are being prepared for executive positions. This is an immoral practice, but there are risks that can occur if Anyon’s elitist curriculum is equally distributed throughout the country. Everyone can not manage the corporation some have to toil for the sake of the company. The working class may potentially have a better understanding of executive duties, if Anyon’s curriculum is implemented. With a greater appreciation for the business structure, working class employees may be educated enough to demand more benefits from their companies. The end result of implementing Anyon’s theory is that there will be a more diverse group of qualified candidates from which corporations select. This makes the face of corporate America as cultured as the nation it’s in, and it eliminates much of the disadvantaging prejudice that comes with elitism. This is proof that it is wise to utilize Anyon’s elite curriculum throughout all school systems. Every income scale should be accessible among all races and nationalities, but to assume that the children of high income families will work remedial jobs so the poor can be executives is irrational. Anyon’s curriculum must be set into action with the hope that it levels the playing field, and Ebonics needs to be abolished as a credible English vernacular.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Kurdish Conflict Regulation

Kurdish Conflict Regulation 1.4. Definitions As Milton- Edwards says, before examining the specific manifestations of the main subject, it is important to outline some of other important related definitions (2008). To analyze and discuss Kurdish conflict regulation in the Republic of Turkey, one needs to define Turkey’s system in relation to the Kurds as an ethnic minority in that country. Ethnicity and its related issues are important enough for scholars to consider it as one of main forces to shape the world. Brass claims â€Å"ethnicity and nationalism, interethnic conflicts, and secessionist movements have been major forces shaping the modern world and the structure and stability of contemporary states† (1991). Zuelow in ‘Nationalism Journals’ like Brass about national identity and its potency says national identity has been one of the principals force shaping the course of history, certainly since the French Revolution† (1999). In addition, he believes that national identity has played a key role in revolutions, wars and state-formation (Ibid). When people of different ethnicity are living in one territory and one group generally has the majority rule on other groups in non-democratic ways, it is the starting point of conflict. Bruce Gilley defined â€Å"ethnic conflict as sustained and violent conflict by ethnically distinct actors in which the issue is integral to one ethnicity† (2004, 1160). In the same source, he uses other terms such as ‘ethnic violence’ or ‘ethnic war’ for ethnic conflict (Ibid, 1155). ‘Ethnic conflict regulation’ is the other term should be defined here. There are many definitions for ethnic conflict regulation in different references. Wolff believes â€Å"conflict regulation comprises three elements: prevention, management, and settlement: Conflict prevention aims at channeling conflict into non-violent behavior by providing incentives for peaceful accommodation. Conflict management is the attempt to contain, limit or direct the effects of an ongoing ethnic conflict. Conflict settlement aims at establishing an institutional framework in which the conflicting interests of different ethnic groups can be accommodated to extent the incentives to non-violent and cooperation condition† (2009, 1). Ilievski Wolff define ethnic conflict regulation through institutional design that conflicts can be resolved via an institutional bargain that establishes macro-level structures through which disputes among the conflict parties can be addressed politically and without recourse to violence† (2010, 5-6). McGarry and OLeary claim, â€Å"The term of ‘regulation’ is inclusive and it covers both conflict termination and conflict management. Eight distinct macro-methods of ethnic conflict regulation can be distinguished into two methods for eliminating differences and methods for managing differences† (1993, 4). The Republic of Turkey was founded on the main principles, or ‘six arrows’, of Kemalism. These principles are republicanism, nationalism, secularism, populism, statism and revolutionism (Los Angeles Times 2014). Kemal Ataturk and his followers have defined Turkey as a pro-Western, modern and democratic country. The two subjects of ethnic minority rights and Islamism, based on two principles of Turkish nationalism and secularism, were taboo for many decades. The Welfare Party in the general election for the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA) in 1995 captured the majority of seats. Necmettin Erbakan came to power as the first Islamist Prime Minister in the Republic of Turkey in 1996. Although the age of his Cabinet was just one year, it was enough to break the taboo of the secularism principle as a ban for Islamist political parties. Nonetheless, the years of 1990s and Ãâ€"zal’s speeches about Kurdish people as an ethnic minority in Turkey, can be looked as a s tarting point, at least one decade was needed to start to break the one-nation-one- state idea in Turkey. In respect of Kurdish ethnic regulation in Turkey, the definition of ‘Double Standard’ seems to fit with institutions and constitutional laws in Turkey. â€Å"Double standard is a situation in which two people or groups are treated very differently from each other in a way that is unfair to one of them† (merriam-webster dictionary 2014) or â€Å"a set of principles that applies differently and usually more rigorously to one group of people or circumstances than to another† ( and (Ibid). Park, referring to Guney (2006-2007) and Uslu (2008a) says, â€Å"a major explanatory factor behind Turkey’s resistance to the adoption of more contrition to the Armenian fate, or a more inclusive embracing of its Kurdish citizens, is the intensity of Turkish nationalism (2012, 23). The ‘Turkish history thesis’ insist that the Turks of central Asia constituted the world’s first civilized people, who had provided the root of all other world civilizations (Park 2012,23). Associated with the history thesis was the ‘Sun language theory’ which claims that â€Å"Turks were the originators of language itself and that all other languages were thus derived from or linked to it (Cagaptay 2002; Arkman 2006)† (Park 2012,24). Security systems, militaristic approaches, economic and human rights conditions in West and Center of the country, or overall for Turks, has been different from non-Turk minorities in Turkey. Kurds, as approximately 20% of Turkeys population, have been forbidden from the basic rights for about one century. In the meantime, supporting the rights of the Turkish language population as citizens of other countries has been one of the main principles of Turkeys Foreign Policies. These types of different approaches can be described as forms of a double standard policy. Sometimes these dual policies have caused conflict for Turkey and have pushed the country from a zero-problem to a zero-friend situation. Park, when defining the Republic of Turkey, refers to Yavuz and Eposito (2003:xx1) in that they claim â€Å"when Ataturk died in 1938, Kemalism was ‘neither democratic nor liberal but Authoritarian, elitist, and ideological† (2012, 13). However, Urrutia and Villellas look at Turkey as a ‘consolidating democracy’ (2012, 2) in their description of Turkey’s system. Gulcan Saglam (2012) looks at Turkey under the rule of AKP as a ‘semi-democratic state’ that may be more compatible with the current conditions in Turkey and useful for this study. A semi-democratic state is defined as a state that has democratic principles and an authoritarian rule in practice at the same time, but they are neither entirely authoritarian nor fully democratic. The semi-democratic state, by Akinola (2013) definition, is â€Å"a state that supports democracy as an idea, but fails to reach the application of its principles.The principles of freedom speech and association, free and fair election as well as transparency in government constitute essential characters of the democratic state†. Saglam says â€Å"in semi-democratic political settings with strong authoritarian actors, political parties that build broad coalitions consisting of various power centers in the society via group specific policy promises will be more likely to shift the balance of power in favor of themselves than actors that lack such connections† (2012, 37-8). He believes â€Å"The AKP is the first Islamist political party in Turkey that pursued this strategy, and it was these group-specific policy promises that eventually helped the Party to repel the Kemalist state structure and shift the balance of power in favor of itself† (Ibid). 1.5. The Problem and Rationale Ethnic identity and ethnic conflict have been the most complicated issues among societies and have remained as double bind ties in domestic, regional and international levels, especially in developing countries. Ethnic conflict has a connection and interrelation with other themes such as gender, political economy and democratization in different aspects (Milton-Edwards 2008, 1). Beavis asserts that â€Å"ethnic conflict studies can be seen as a source for understanding international relations but single book; concept or theory is not able to explain such a complex phenomenon in its entirety† (1999-2012). Ethnic conflict is often considered as a local or intra-state issue, but indeed, it has had effect on both intra-state and inter-state relations. The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) answers the question ‘How many conflicts were there in the world in 2011?’ (UCDP 2011) and clarifies the number and rank of ‘intrastate conflicts’ in comparison to other kinds of conflict in that year, claiming that â€Å"in 2011, UCDP recorded 37 active armed conflicts†(Ibid). Based on the same source, from thirty-seven armed conflicts in 2011 that took place in 30 different parts of the world, 27 of them were intrastate, nine intrastate with foreign involvement. Cambodia-Thailand (common border) was the only case among them registered as interstate conflict. Turkey was among five Middle Eastern countries having intrastate Kurdish conflict; that it did not introduce to a level of war until 2011. The above chart from UCDP (2013) shows the type and number of armed conflicts from 1946-2012. It shows the extra state conflict just until 1974, interstate conflicts have decreased and internationalized conflicts have had slow increase since 2004. However, the numbers of intrastate conflicts have had significant increase especially from the 1960’s. In comparison with international wars from 1950s, Civil Wars have been more frequent and more durable. Ethnic wars have been main part of civil wars. For instance, 55% in 1970 and 72% in 1991 of civil wars have been ethnic wars. During the 1990s, more than 200 ethnic minorities or subordinate majorities in the world have struggled to achieve their political rights ( Johnson 2008). Caselli and Coleman refer to Fearon and Laitin (2003) in that from 1945 to 1999, the numbers of ethnic civil wars have been 58, equal to 51% of all civil wars in that period; and they believe that more silent and worth noting are the non-violent conflicts (2011). In some countries, ethnic groups compete through overtly ethnic parties, and compete for power, but in others, a dominant group discriminates against and exploits the others (Ibid). â€Å"Esman (1994, 229) believes when an ethnic group gains control of the state, important economic assets are soon transferred to the members of that community† (Ibid 2011, 2). Gilley disagrees with some definitions of the concept of ethnic conflict and looks at it as a critic, but, he accepts the importance and widespread of this conflict in reality. He looks the rise amount of researches and academic studies in this field as a ‘major growth industry’ and he has made reference to the number of published books and online articles in specific periods in comparison with previous periods. He claims that the ethnic conflict issue is a more attractive subject to be studied by new journals and research centers. He announces that the numbers of published books and online articles in the English language under the title of ‘ethnic conflict’ have been 43 books since 1990 in comparison to 17 before that and 249 online academic English-language articles with the title of ‘ethnic conflict’, but just 23 articles under the ‘class conflict’ title for the same years (2004). McGarry and O’Leary refer to deep geo-political changes in different parts of the world, especially in Africa; for instance in Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Namibia and Zimbabwe and finally in South Africa by extinction of Apartheid regime in the last decades of 20th century. All of them show the power of ethnicity to mobilize populations and create mass movements to redefine the borders. They say, â€Å"The renewed instability of state frontiers is merely one symptom of the global political power of ethnic consciousness and conflict† (1993, 2), and they say, â€Å"a reason why ethnic questions are potentially explosive, and raise the possibility that some people(s) will be tempted to exercise self-determination through secession is simple. Ethnic questions raise relatively non-tradable issues. It is obvious nationality, language; territorial homelands and culture are not bargain-able products (Ibid 1993). Previous explanations and definitions show the importance and role of ethnicity, nationalism and ethnic conflicts and its rank in academic research. Kurdish ethnic conflict is one of the most complex issues in the Middle East. Kurds have struggled for more than one century for freedom and to achieve self-determination in Kurdish regions. The states that have controlled parts of Kurdistan have denied, suppressed and assimilated Kurds. It has brought unfavorable consequences for all sides. Turkey as having approximately 20% of its population as Kurdish minority, basing its state on Kemalism ideology and Turkish nationalism, has been one of the most atrocious regimes against Kurdish political movements. The bloody violence from 1984 between PKK and Turkey’s military has taken place. The consequences of that war have been more than 40,000 deaths, more disabled people, imprisonment and millions forced to be immigrants and refugees. In the past few years, Turkey with PKK and its in jailed leader, Abdulla Ó ¦calan, has entered into peace negotiations. This subject is a new opening in Turkish nationalism. The first sign of change was in the speeches of statesmen about the Kurdish ethnic conflict regulation, back in the 1990’s and Ó ¦zal; who believed in a multicultural society for Turkey. The most behavioral and practical changes have been attributable to Erdogan and the AKP administration from 2002 to 2014. This current issue and its effect on the Kurdish political condition in Turkey and other countries and the democratization process in local and regional realms, has become worthy enough for academic research study.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Rawlsian Affirmative Action Essay -- Philosophy Philosophical Papers

Rawlsian Affirmative Action: Compensatory Justice as Seen from the Original Position * ABSTRACT: In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls presents a method of determining how a just society would allocate its "primary goods"-that is, those things any rational person would desire, such as opportunities, liberties, rights, wealth, and the bases of self-respect. (1) Rawls' method of adopting the "original position" is supposed to yield a "fair" way of distributing such goods. A just society would also have the need (unmet in the above work) to determine how the victims of injustice ought to be compensated, since history suggests that social contracts are likely to be violated. This paper is an attempt to determine the remedial measures that would be selected using Rawls' method. I contend that only two of the three most widely used "affirmative action" policies would be selected from the original position. I also sketch another compensatory policy that would pass Rawls' fairness test. I. Affirmative action is public policy designed to compensate the victims of injustice. (2) To be thus disadvantaged, in Rawls' scheme of things, is to have suffered in some way from having had less than one's fair share of the primary goods (62). This measure, according to Rawls, ought to be determined by the two principles that would be selected in the original position (17-22). The "first principle," which is "lexically prior" to the second, dictates that each member of society be granted every shareable personal liberty, a liberty being shareable just in case one's exercising of it would not prevent others from doing so (60-1, 250). The "second principle" states that the other primary goods are to be distributed in an egalitarian fashion unless... ...with compensating the victims of injustice. (3) Having done my best here to defend what follows as a reasonable extension of Rawls' system, I would add that I am not wed to the idea that it be taken as such. If the connection between ideal and nonideal theory is not as I have portrayed it, if the latter is not to be circumscribed by the former, then the ensuing views on affirmative action may simply be understood as those that would follow if one were apply Rawl's method, against his own stricture, to the issue of compensatory justice. (4) In correspondence and in "A Puzzle About Economic Justice In Rawls' Theory," Social Theory and Practice, vol. 4 #1, pp. 1-27. (5) "A Puzzle About ..., " p. 3. (6) Ibid., p. 7. (7) Ibid., pp. 12-13. (8) Thomas Nagel, "The Policy of Preference," in Mortal Questions (London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979) pp.91-105.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Cause and Effect Essay: Lying :: Cause and Effect Essays

Can you remember the last time someone lied to you? Or how about the last time you lied to someone else? Did you ever stop and ask yourself why? There are so many different reasons that a person might lie. Maybe a lie about something to keep oneself out of trouble, or even a lie to impress other people. But either way there are always going to be serious consequences or effects of lying.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  People lie everyday to, in someway or another, keep themselves out of trouble. Many teenagers will lie to their parents about what they are doing for the evening, how much of their homework they have done, or how that glass vase got broken while they were out of town. We even lie to our significant others about who that other boy was that called the house or what exactly we did with our friends last night. All anyone is trying to accomplish by this is to stay out of trouble when we know we’ve done wrong. But we never think of the effects of lying. Although we think we’re being sly, parents are usually smarter than we give them credit for! And eventually our boyfriends and girlfriends will find out! Then the problem becomes the issue of trust. If you lie, there is no trust. That can be one of the serious consequences of lying.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  How about lying to impress other people? More common in children and teenagers, we lie to make others think we’re cool. And when you really think about it, that’s the part that’s not cool! Most young people care too much about what other kids think. Everyone always wants to fit in with the crowd so they lie about things to make them fit in. What happens when the plan backfires? The downside effect would be that once people know that you are constantly lying to them, they wouldn’t think you’re cool at all. Cause and Effect Essay: Lying :: Cause and Effect Essays Can you remember the last time someone lied to you? Or how about the last time you lied to someone else? Did you ever stop and ask yourself why? There are so many different reasons that a person might lie. Maybe a lie about something to keep oneself out of trouble, or even a lie to impress other people. But either way there are always going to be serious consequences or effects of lying.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  People lie everyday to, in someway or another, keep themselves out of trouble. Many teenagers will lie to their parents about what they are doing for the evening, how much of their homework they have done, or how that glass vase got broken while they were out of town. We even lie to our significant others about who that other boy was that called the house or what exactly we did with our friends last night. All anyone is trying to accomplish by this is to stay out of trouble when we know we’ve done wrong. But we never think of the effects of lying. Although we think we’re being sly, parents are usually smarter than we give them credit for! And eventually our boyfriends and girlfriends will find out! Then the problem becomes the issue of trust. If you lie, there is no trust. That can be one of the serious consequences of lying.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  How about lying to impress other people? More common in children and teenagers, we lie to make others think we’re cool. And when you really think about it, that’s the part that’s not cool! Most young people care too much about what other kids think. Everyone always wants to fit in with the crowd so they lie about things to make them fit in. What happens when the plan backfires? The downside effect would be that once people know that you are constantly lying to them, they wouldn’t think you’re cool at all.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Leadership philosophies

There are many types of leadership philosophies that all require a clearness of purpose to be successful. Their difference lies in their approach to dealing with the subject of leadership and followership. It is essential to define leadership philosophy first before engaging in a long discussion on the types that comprise it. So what is exactly a leadership philosophy? Encarta defines philosophy as 1. Examination of basic concepts: the branch of knowledge or academic study devoted to the systematic examination of basic concepts such as truth, existence, reality, causality, and freedom2. School of thought: a particular system of thought or doctrine 3. Guiding or underlying principles: a set of basic principles or concepts underlying a particular sphere of knowledge 4. Set of beliefs or aims: a precept, or set of precepts, beliefs, principles, or aims, underlying somebody’s practice or conduct Leadership philosophy is therefore based on a set of ideas and beliefs that set the ex ample to how many people experience their lives or envision their future. Leadership philosophy is an understanding combined with a purpose for the aim of advancing the general good.Leaders use different and various philosophies to motivate their followers whether those are citizens or employees. The type of philosophy adopted by a leader usually depends on the outcomes desired. For instance, a common type of leadership philosophy adopted by business employers is enlightened philosophy where the ideas of the employees themselves are used to change, improve and advance the organization. The leader assumes the role of the guide and inquires into what people would like to see within the organization thereby effectively involving them in the process and making them feel useful.The employees or followers give their opinion, suggest the ideas they would like to see in reality coming out and compose a plan through which to achieve that. This all is done under the directive leadership of a person who assumes the role of counselor, advisor and guide without imposing his views on the process and thereby securing both the involvement of the followers as well as their productive happiness since they would feel more useful when they can contribute to improving their lives with their ideas.Not all philosophies work or achieve the desired effect. One of the less successful philosophies, in contrast to the successful enlightening type of leadership philosophy that has already been mentioned, is called the â€Å"groupthink†. It is very similar to the enlightening philosophy where the people are supported to give their opinion and share their ideas. However what makes the groupthink less desirable as a leadership philosophy is that it mainly supports the person who develops the idea but does not examine the idea in itself.(Baird) As a consequence of this, bad policies are often made official since the leader's role was limited to supporting instead of both supporting and criticizing the ideas that were developed. It is therefore essential that a leader combines between the role of guide and critique in an open discussion of ideas exchange to both secure the inclusion of only good ideas as well as keep the atmosphere competitive and fresh which would not happen if all ideas are passed.The next type of leadership philosophy to be examined is called the autocratic leadership and it is a style that is, as the name might suggest, full of tyranny and despotism which makes it thus very similar to dictatorship and completely different from the two types of leadership styles that have been mentioned so far and that are more democratic in nature. The autocratic leadership style is mainly seen in governments just like the enlightening leadership philosophy is mainly applied in businesses.The autocratic style involves more negative than positive sides and that is mainly because the type of rule associated with it is one of complete control and lack of freedom which goes against human's most basic need and essential human aspect. Though this style is more likely to be found in governments businesses do have tyrants themselves. For instance a CEO may fire any employee who does not agree with him which connotes lack of diversity and a suffocated repressed atmosphere where the worker or citizen is not able to achieve his true potential.The next example in leadership philosophy is the servant style of leading others. While most leaders tend to lead others with the assumption that that requires a certain traditional superior attitude, experience and research have proven that the inclusion of the followers in the process is more likely to produce the desired results. A more humble and less arrogant attitude is therefore more appreciated from the leader himself. It is understandable and logical to think of leaders as little bit over the top figures who are in a way part of the group but still above it.But as stated, this approach might not produ ce the best environment for all and therefore a servant leadership style is the best solution for the problem. Servant leadership opposes autocratic leadership and as has been exemplified autocratic leadership usually fails. Paul McDaniel in his article How to Practice Servant Leadership illustrates the role of the servant leader very clearly and eloquently in the following words A servant leader acts as a steward to the organization's financial, human, and other resources.Servant Leadership emphasizes trust, empathy, collaboration, and the ethical use of power. At the heart of servant leadership, the individual leader of an organization is a servant first. He or she makes a conscious decision to lead in order to better serve others, not to increase his or her own power. The servant leader's objective is to enhance the growth of individuals in the organization and increase teamwork and personal involvement. It is interesting to observe these different types of leadership and to also reflect on what makes one more successful than another.In the case of servant leadership versus autocratic leadership the leader assumes the role of a humble servant to the others in the group thereby getting closer to them and assuring them that what matters is the advancement of the goals and the achievement of their purpose. After all true leadership emerges from the true desire to help others. Through becoming more familiar with the group one assures that positive change is more assured as he can allocate the different tasks in a more effective manner to those who can perform them best.It also guarantees the trust of the follower in the leader when the latter's personality and agenda are better understood. Servant leadership is a way through which to foster trust into each other and creates an environment where the voice of every member counts which makes a joyful working and living environment more possible. Enlightening, autocratic and servant leadership have been mentioned s o far. The next types of leadership philosophy that deserve a closer inspection are the ethical leadership†¦..and the collective leadership. The latter is hard to define since it is still a relatively new area which makes and many people have different theories about it. Collective leadership has been defined by Alain Gauthier as Co-leadership that embraces the diversity of people and perspectives and frees up self-initiative and collective intelligence. When practiced across sectors, it creates the conditions for societal learning and innovation through an increased sense of interdependence and a deeper trust in self-organization.It is commonly agreed that it incorporates cultural and technological resources in a manner that allows people to work together better for the advancement of the community's prosperity. Collective leadership is only possible when the members of a group have formed a closer bond with each other and therefore can work better together. Collectivity after all is more about the â€Å"we† than the â€Å"I†. Ethical Leadership is when the leader is very familiar with the essential values of his convictions and has the vision and courage to live up to them and include them in his work and realization of his goals.Ethical leadership combines between the inner values and beliefs of the leader in question and the behavior and external conditions of the outside world. People who want to make a difference need to combine between their vision, and all that comes along with it in terms of integrity and clearness of purpose, and their commitment to do well and make a difference. Ethical leadership assumes that only through embracing the inner journey one can really express and realize the outer one. To understand what makes a person a leader it is essential to first grasp what differentiates him from a follower.A person does not need to be a hero to be a leader. Leadership does not come in one form or type and different type of pe ople suit different forms of leadership. Leadership does not have a gender requirement. Men and women can both lead. The secret lies in convincing others of your ability to realize their dreams and advance the common good. As stated leadership comes in many forms just like the leader does. People naturally differ in how they define the word in itself and nobody can say that their vision is right or wrong since the issue is broad and left to different interpretations.Followers naturally expect leaders to show them things and set for them an example. They expect the leader to take care of their needs and therefore it follows that being a leader is neither an easy job nor one that anyone can conduct regarding the many responsibilities attached to it. Leadership philosophies are based on the vision and experiences of the leader. Leadership is never stagnant as it is always a subject of continues development depending on the circumstances and the different ideas the leader himself might develop over time.Leadership philosophy is therefore a subject of continues growth regarding its attachment to the human nature who is never stagnant and always seeks change and new ideas. Many of the leadership philosophies that are practiced nowadays were used by the Marine Corps and involve â€Å"Justice, judgment, dependability, initiative, decisiveness, integrity, loyalty and enthusiasm†(Leadership Philosophies). Each of these terms will be given a ore thoughtful explanation in the following regarding the importance of each word in defining the various leadership philosophies and understanding them.Justice makes an individual more consistent and better valued. It makes the leader avoid criticism of favoritism and therefore decreases the tension in the group. The ability to use judgment to avoid being accused of favoring one person above the other is therefore very important for a leader. Dependability on the other hand is â€Å"is the willing and voluntary support of th e policies and orders of the chain of command† (Wright, 1984/2002). Being dependable means being reliable and therefore trustworthy which are obviously great and essential characteristic in a leader.Along with this goes initiative that shows enthusiasm and sets the example. A good leader needs to always set the right and best example to inspire the followers. (Leadership Philosophies) Decisiveness shows the ability to make a decision and therefore the ability to lead. This again increases the trust of the group in the leader and secures success. Loyalty on the other hand shows commitment to the group and its goals and enhances the trust of the people in the leader. It shows integrity and honesty and these are essential traits of a good leadership philosophy.Leadership philosophies are very different but at the core they have the same purpose in mind which is leading. Leaders are thus guided by their leadership philosophy. The question that might arise in relevance to the diffe rent types of leadership is whether it is better as a leader to be feared or loved. As has been discussed previously autocratic leadership is less successful than the enlightening or servant form of leadership. However, Harvard professor Scott Snook provides a different interpretation of the issue.He illustrates through two examples that different leadership styles do not necessarily result in the success of one above the other. He argues that leadership is essentially influenced by human nature and therefore by the philosophy of the person in charge. Though different in approach both leaders still have the same vision which is success and achievement of goals. He provides the following two examples to enhance this theory further. Bobby Knight Bobby Knight, also known as â€Å"The General,† is the head coach at Texas Tech University.He’s a fiery, in-your-face taskmaster who leads through discipline and intimidation, which some critics say goes too far. Knight was fired from a long career at Indiana University for grabbing a student, and prior to that he was filmed clutching one of his own players by the neck. And then there was the infamous incident during a game when Knight tossed a folding chair across the court to protest a referee’s call. Mike Krzyzewski Mike Krzyzewski, also known as Coach K, leads the men’s basketball program at Duke University.Instead of fear, Krzyzewski relies heavily on positive reinforcement, open and warm communication, and caring support. For Coach K, â€Å"It’s about the heart, it’s about family, it’s about seeing the good in people and bringing the most out of them,† says Snook. (Ambler) Both coaches achieved desirable results with their teams despite the different leadership philosophies they believed in. To be successful in one of these types of leadership it is however essential to be fully convinced of it being the right style for you.Ones actions have to be in harmony w ith one's words and that is only guaranteed if the leader knows where he stands. The success of a leadership philosophy therefore depends on the leader's full awareness and adherence to it which is the only way through which to guarantee the right implementation of it. Leadership is about inspiring others. This leads the discussion to creative leadership where leaders search for opportunities and introduce change through discovering them.Creative leadership is about solving problems no matter what they are as it evolves around finding new and creative methods to approach things. Creative leadership inspires people to do great things and encourages them to always improve their performance and keep their attitude at all times positive and forward-looking. People perform the required task for a manager but an inspirational leader makes them do their entire best and put all their effort in, not only for financial reasons but because they feel inspired. The following picture illustrates the working dimension of inspirational or creative leadership.

Monday, September 16, 2019

How was Hitler helped into power?

Although it is true to say that Hitler gained power through the ‘back-door', it is unfair to argue that Hitler had got into power purely by luck or chance. Certainly the situation in Germany made the atmosphere right for a Nazi takeover, however certain events must be recognised as being a direct result of Hitler's perseverance and strengths as a leader. Perhaps most importantly for the Nazi party- if not conventional – was the appeal of the party's agenda. Not only was the party's agenda masterminded by Hitler, it was he who projected the party's ideologies to the people efficiently, and powerfully to the public. Not only was this from his oratorical dexterity, but also from his brilliant propaganda methods. Hitler's dexterous methods of propaganda clearly won public support. How Hitler manipulated Horst Wessel's death is on instance, in which Hitler blamed the KPD party for his murder, whereas his death was due to other motives. Not only does this instance shows Hitler's deftness, but also gives us an indication as to whom Hitler targeted in his propaganda. However, it seems although Hitler used propaganda to good effect, much of his support would not have been gained but for the circumstances in which Germany were in. Anti-Semitism, horrific as it may seem, was in fact staunchly supported, particularly within the Bavarian region of Germany. Much of this hatred became more widespread, especially amongst middle classes. This was largely due to the fact that the majority of the instigators of urbanisation happened to be Jews. However, Hitler's nationalist theory and brilliant propaganda skills made the spread of Anti-Semitism easier and faster. In fact, much of the ideologies of the time that were widespread, such as anti-communism, nationalism, volkenmeingeschaft etc. orresponded to Nazi ideology. Hitler, with his brilliant leadership skills, was able to get such views across via propaganda and his great oratory skills. Consequently, due to the fact that many agreed with much of his ideologies, Hitler was imminently going to gain support. One instance is the very important group, the liturgy, which had Lutheran roots and thus very connected to Germany, supported the Nazis primarily because of their Nationalistic philosophies. Furthermore, the strength of the Nazi Party was its ideologies appealed to many sections of German society. Although the working class on the whole remained loyal to the socialist party, the socialist element of the Nazis 25-points (which amounted to little more than vague promises of land reform and attack on profiteering), did win some working class support. Instances such as these clearly gave Hitler some sort of power base to which he could gain leadership from. Hitler also appeared to be a factor in gaining a persona in which the Nazi party could easily get support from the party. This could only be gained through conventional means (i. . through elections), as oppose to their putschist tactics and by having a strong fuhrer to which the public could relate. Hitler offered both of these to the party, (A â€Å"Hitler cult† developed by his justification that there was a need for strong leadership to save the party from the so-called Jewish-socialist conspiracy) the ramifications of which were very pleasing for the National Socialists. By 1929, the Nazis were the second largest party in Germany. The biggest factor into Hitler gaining power was the Weimar republics collapse. This was largely due to the fact that more economic problems within the Weimar constitution led to Chancellors such as Von Papen and Schleicher over-using Article 48 in the Reichstag. This imminently led to the demise of the Weimar as a democracy. However, this is not to say that the collapse of the Weimar on its own led to the Nazi party takeover. In fact, at the time of the near collapse of the Weimar, the Nazi party was the largest party in the Reichstag. Coupled with the fact that Von Papen was eager to return to the Reichstag, Hitler was able to become Chancellor. Nonetheless, this did not indicate a complete takeover, although it did become the start of one. Another factor into the demise of the Weimar and thus Hitler's appointment as Chancellor was the underestimation of Hitler as a manipulator. In essence, Papen especially was foolish to believe that he could control Hitler. In conclusion, it is just to say that Hitler's ‘help' was a little more than help. In fact, it was a combination of both Hitler's qualities as a leader and propagandist and events within Germany that allowed Hitler's ominous rise to power.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Macbeth Essay

The medieval and renaissance view of the world saw a relationship between order on earth, the so-called microcosm, and order on the larger scale of the universe, or macrocosm. Thus, when Lennox and the Old Man talk of the terrifying alteration in the natural order of the universe † tempests, earthquakes, darkness at noon, and so on † these are all reflections of the breakage of the natural order that Macbeth has brought about in his own microcosmic world. Macbeth is set in a society in which the notion of honor to one’s word and loyalty to one’s superiors is absolute. At the top of this hierarchy is the king, God’s representative on Earth. Other relationships also depend on loyalty: comradeship in warfare, hospitality of host towards guest, and the loyalty between husband and wife. In this play, all these basic societal relationships are perverted or broken. Lady Macbeth’s domination over her husband, Macbeth’s reacherous act of regicide, and his destruction of comradely and family bonds, all go against the natural order of things. Clearly, gender is out of its traditional order. This disruption of gender roles is also presented through Lady Macbeth’s usurpation of the dominate role in the Macbeth’s marriage; on many occasions, she rules her husband and dictates his actions. Macbeth is very rational, contemplating the consequences and implications of his actions. He recognizes the political, ethical, and religious reason why he should not commit regicide. In addition to Jeopardizing his afterlife, Macbeth notes that regicide is a violation of Duncan’s â€Å"double trust† that stems from Macbeth’s bonds as a kinsman and as a subject. On the other hand, Lady Macbeth has a more passionate way of examining the pros and cons of killing Duncan. She is motivated by her feelings and uses emotional arguments to persuade her husband to commit the evil act. Macbeth Essay The play Macbeth was written in the start of the 1600s by William Shakespeare, if you ever get a chance to read this play in both script and graphic novel you will discover that there are many signs of imagery and symbolism. Some of the many examples have been shown in nature with trees and birds acting as something’s are going on in the back, some in the way that the people, kings, and nobles dress in the play and also some in the way that blood is used throughout the play. As Lady Macbeth and Macbeth make plans to kill King Duncan so that Macbeth can become king as what the witches’ prophecy states, they know Banquo was there talking to the witches with Macbeth. The first example shows how the weather and nature acts when Macbeth and Lady Macbeth do a dirty deed. So when the king was murdered the animals in the Kings castle went ‘haywire’ as Ross says, â€Å"and Duncan’s horses, a thing most strange / Beauteous and swift, the minors of their race, / turn’d wild in nature, broke their stalls, flung out, / Contending ’gainst obedience as they would.† (Ross, 2.4.14) This would show that a person has done something that they should not and obstructed the circle of life; in this case, â€Å"†¦Macbeth does murder sleep†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Macbeth, 2.2.395); in other words Macbeth killed Duncan to take his position. There is also many other parts where nature acts as events happen for example when Malcolm and his army from England proceed marching to Dunsinane to confront Macbeth. Because at this point the weather appears to be dark and scary like someone is going to die. The second example is clothing; this distinguishes them from good and evil. For example light clothes are worn when the character wearing them is in a good and positive role and dark clothes are worn when the character wearing them is in a bad and evil role. Relating to Macbeth, this shows him as well as Lady Macbeth changing from noble and loyal to the king to trying to take him over. At the start Macbeth shows to be wearing purple and other loyal colors in the graphic novel but towards the end he had turned to a tyrant and started wearing red symbolizing blood and dark clothes. But also clothing is used to represent people and used to tell how good or bad a person is for example when Macbeth hears that he has been given the position of the Thane of Cawdor, he asks Angus why he is being dressed in â€Å"borrowed† robes (1.3.7) because he knows that the Thane of Cawdor still lives. Blood shows to play a huge part in Macbeth: Macbeth is a warrior at start and towards the end but then towards the middle he shows his ambition and turned to kill anyone in his way, in this case King Duncan and Banquo and Macduff’s Family. Make thick my blood,/ Stop up/ th’ access and passage of nature/ Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between/ Th’ effect and it! (Lady Macbeth, 1.5), this shows that lady Macbeth is talking to and telling spirits to make her blood thick and make her stronger so that they can commit a crime. Also that blood can symbolize who they are and what they do. Macbeth also says it will have blood, they / say: blood will have blood. / Stones have been known to move and trees to speak (Macbeth, 3.6). Blood plays a big part in Macbeth because Macbeth and Lady Macbeth have been playing with the scale of life and disrupting it with blood and murder. Showing blood, nature and clothing in the play can make symbolism and imagery in the play better. Blood is used in most of Shakespeare plays. The nature used in these plays is called pathetic fallacy and this is another factor embedded in most Shakespeare plays. In Macbeth he is a warrior but a tyrant trying to take over the king. Clothing can play a role to describe what kind or how a person is. At conclusion Macbeth shows symbolism and imagery to describe many aspects of the play and it does help the reader or the audience get a better perspective and in-depth view of the characters and how they behave.