Thursday, October 31, 2019

A college education is worth the time and money Essay

A college education is worth the time and money - Essay Example Today’s workplace environment is a highly challenging one and that calls for a vast proficiency in specific industrial fields; employers are looking to recruit highly qualified employees with the relevant skills and knowledge, and this can only be acquired through college education. Through college education, one is able to improve their personal and interpersonal knowledge through interaction with people from diversified cultures. Socialization is a fundamental aspect of human interactions, and this skill is highly advanced in individuals who have been fortunate to go through college education. Being able to create personal and professional networks is the benefit of college education that results from increased human contact (McGuire). Apart from that, college education enables one to achieve prestige and self-actualization; it is highly gratifying for one to have college education, especially in changing attitudes towards education in the modern world. Possession of college education epitomizes civilization and enlightenment as opposed to lack of it, which indicates illiteracy and backwardness. Ultimately, college education is the key to career development, socialization and self-actualization. Therefore, given that college education is very important in today’s world, it is true to say that it is worth all the time and money. McGuire, Jeff. â€Å"Importance of College Education: Why it is important to go to college†. (n.d). Web. 22nd Feb 2013.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Marketing Simulation Analysis Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Marketing Simulation Analysis Paper - Essay Example The organization is divided into four foundational structures each division having a leader. The finance division is chaired by the chief finance officer (CFO), who oversees the director of finance, human resource division and the staff accounts. The marketing division chaired by the chief marketing officer (CMO) and two other supporting stuff members. The operations division led by the chief operations officer and one supporting stuff member. Strategic/international growth chaired by the strategic growth (VP) and one supporting stuff member. As a result of the increased need of customer satisfaction, we developed our first brand computer called the hot coffee. The reason for developing the brand was to attain a modern, universal brand that would suit and be utilized by the younger generation (university students). This service was appealing to the consumers and unique compared to those offered by competing companies (Clancy & Krieg, 2007). Hot coffee was in some way a luxury which w as not cheap but affordable to the consumer’s mind in this case being the students. This brand was aimed at making customers in the organization the organization to feel the modern day technology. We devised a number of ways to advertise our products. The first advertising piece to be used was â€Å"launch ad†. ... The large amount of money used in the launching of the sales office and the advertisement development resulted into reduced profits. Due to the losses experienced in the third quarter, we focused on reducing engineering and advertising costs during the fourth quarter to lower the expenditure. Here we aimed at reducing the amount spent to cater for the losses incurred in the third quarter. The losses in the third quarter further led to low profitability of the coffee brand. Mercedes and Workhouse are the resources that demanded for the brand. Although there was high revenue during the first and the second quarters, the expenses were not enough to meet the demand requirements. Financial weakness experienced led to budgets and resources not aligning to profit growth. In this quarter, the profitability is low. To raise the profit, we designed a brand called hot tea, which is a model type of computer whose prices is low. This transformed the company to becoming simple and clear hence incr easing the number of customers which in turn increased the profit margin. We also opened a new sales office in Paris to facilitate the growth of the existing brand as we planned for future development of new brands. We also aimed at lowering the base model price. Focusing on performance to gain profit was the main aim in the fifth quarter since expansion had taken place during the fourth quarter. In case profit-gaining failed here, it would be achieved in the sixth quarter. Iced coffee, offered from quarter one to quarter four, and hot tea introduced in quarter four increased profit. Low prices led to reduction of lose. Basing on profitability, iced coffee is more profitable than hot tea. While in terms of competition,

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Differences Between Chinese And German Employment Systems

Differences Between Chinese And German Employment Systems Employment systems are complex structures of productive and reproductive activities, various payment schemes, and different working time arrangements (Christiansen, Koistinen, Kovalainen, 1999, p 1). They can be shaped by societal structures, national cultures, social welfare systems, educational and vocational training systems (Christiansen, et al., 1999). This argument successfully explains why there are so many different employment systems globally. In addition to the structural and cultural differences, globalisation, technological innovation and workforce aging also have resulted in tremendous changes in the social and economic context (Christiansen, et al., 1999; Tuselmann, 2001; Ying Warner, 2005). This paper discussed how and why the employment systems in Germany and China are different and the influences of globalisation. The German employment system was chosen to be the counterpart not only because Germany is one of the worlds leading economies and a prototype of the Continental Model, but also in consideration of its close international trade relationship with China. The attention was focused on the differences between the aspects of Trade Union role and Vocational Education and Training System (VET). The changes in China was focused on the State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) because it is still the dominant employer in China and the data are relative easily be accessed. The term of human resource management (HRM) was used in broad sense in order to cover more aspects of the current HRM practices. This is because HRM, first derived from Northern America after the Second World War and spread to the world, is getting popular in China but there are great variations in interpretation, understanding and practices (Cook, 2004). Differences between German and Chinese employment systems When we talk about the social models in Europe we may consider that the Europe Model is unique and pervasive. However, the notion of Europe Model is too big to reflect the natural differences between each national system, thus it was re-categorized into several sub-groups, named Nordic Model, Anglo-Saxon Model, Mediterranean Model and Continental Model (Sapir, 2006). Germany, along with France, Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, was categorised into the Continental Model characterized with collective bargaining between unions and employers associations, close tie between companies and banks, the comprehensive vocational education and training (VET) system, and extensive labour market regulations (Tuselmann, 2001). Employment system in Germany One outstanding characteristic of the German employment system is its dual representation and legalistic structure industrial relations system. Trade unions and work councils are well established with their counterparts of employers association and firms respectively. Legislations and laws provided a framework for different parties (Katz Darbishire, 2000; Schnabel, Zagelmeyer, Kohaut, 2006). In Germany, collective bargaining is mainly carried out at the region or sector level and the agreement is legally binding. The collective bargaining parties have been legally empowered a great sense of autonomy, so it is possible to apply the agreements without the direct intervention of the state. Wages is a good example. It is collectively negotiated and applied at the state or sector level. Therefore, individual company within a bargaining sector do not has considerable differences in terms of the wages despite the organizations size, structure, technology, capital intensity and global exposure (Katz Darbishire, 2000; Schnabel, et al., 2006; Tuselmann, 2001). This leads to a high functional flexibility while a relatively low numerical and financial flexibility (Tuselmann, 2001, p 546-547). Comprehensive VET system is another feature of German employment system which has successfully supplied a large pool of qualified labours. In Germany, VET is supported by the state and regulated by different labour laws. Qualifications are designed on consensus of the employers association, trade union and educationalist. Chambers of commerce is employed to monitor the training progress and ensure that the trainee is not exploited. The close tie between the firms and banks ensures that investment is in long term interests instead of short one so that firms have much more patience to invest into the VET system. At the same time, because the pay is collectively negotiated in the sector level, it reduce the possibility of key technicians be poached so that firms are more willing to invest into VET (Grugulis, 2007; Tuselmann, 2001). Employment system in contemporary China In order to catch up the rest of the world and improve the economic situation, China has adopted a series of political and economic reforms since 1979, which have resulted in great changes in the context of management practices (Zhu, Thomson, Cieri, 2008). The government has less directly intervened into the workforce management at the enterprise level. Instead, a series of laws and regulations have been adopted to handle the employment issues. SOEs have decentralized or privatized and more and more collectively owned enterprises, privately owned firms, self-employed business as well as foreign-related businesses, such as multinational corporations (MNCs), joint ventures (JVs), were setup. The changes of ownership structure and government involvement methodology undoubtedly impacted the employment system at the macro level. The trade union role, pay structure and VET system have gone through radical changes accordingly (Cooke, 2005). In china, the officially recognized trade union is the All China Federation of Trade Union (ACFTU), which was set up in 1920s and supported the Communist Party to fight against Japanese and Kuomintang. Since 1979 its influence has improved largely but differences are apparent due to the difference of ownership structure, enterprises size and location (Cooke, 2005; Rowley, Benson, Warner, 2004; Ying Warner, 2005). All the union members, despite their occupations, sectors and regions, all belong to the same Union ACFTU. The Trade Union Law, adopted in 1995 and amended in 2001, and the Labour Law (1995) provide a legal framework and empowered union to represent, monitor and protect the members legal rights and interests and develop their activities according to the law (Cooke, 2005; Ying Warner, 2005). In terms of the pay distribution, performance-based incentive policies have been initiated but the basic wage is still largely based on the traditional seniority-based egalitarian wage structure (Cook, 2004, p 25) which can not fully reflect the competences and contributions of the workers. As a result some workers are low motivated and some of the key technicians have been poached by private or foreign-related companies by high wages or higher social identification (Cooke, 2005; Ying Warner, 2005). Another characteristic of Chinese employment system is the ineffective VET system and severe skilled shortage although China has the largest labour pool in the world. VET in China is mainly funded by the government and SOEs. But only in recent years VET received some attentions. There are considerable differences between different enterprises ownerships, sectors and regions. Most of the enterprises leaders think VET is not the core business so that very limited fund was allocated to it (Cooke, 2005). These problems make it difficult for VET to train skilled labours for the social development. In short, compare with Germany, the trade union in China has well organized and developed. It has actively and effectively involved into the collective bargaining and disputes settlement especially after the adoption of the Trade Union Law. The pay structure has abandoned the Maos equality norm and some incentive policies have been introduced but failed to reflect the individual competence. At the same time, compare with the German VET systems, the Chinese VET system is less effective and fail to supply enough skilled labours to meet the social needs. Why are they different Employment systems are complex structures which can shaped by several factors, such as societal structures, national cultures, social welfare systems, education and vocational training systems (Christiansen et al., 1999, p 1). This part explores the reasons of the differences between these two systems from the perspectives of political structures and culture differences. Political structures In Germany, the employment relations is famous for its high degree of juridification (Katz Darbishire, 2000; Lansbury, Bamber, Wailes, 2004). Trade unions activities are guided and governed by the series of legislations and laws, such as the Works Constitution Act, the Co-determination Acts, the Collective Bargaining Act and the Social Security Act (Lansbury, et al., 2004). Dual representation system and various unions make it more effective to represent and protect the members legal interests. In contrast, in China, there is only one officially recognized trade union All China Federation of Trade Union (ACFTU). It is mainly guide and regulated by the Trade Union Law (2001) and the Labour Law (1995). National culture Cross-culture management studies and theories have acknowledged the pervasive influence of cultures on choosing HRM practices in the global business context (Aycan, 2005; Leat El-Kot, 2007). Employment systems theories re-emphasized the importance of the cultures in the shaping of a national system. The comparison between these two countries cultures will provide a new perspective to understand why the German and Chinese employment systems are so different. Hofstedes dimension of culture scales is a powerful indicator to recognize the differences between cultures. Chinese ranks higher on power distance, long term orientation and low on individualism. Germany, however, ranks very high on individualism and very low on long term orientation (Arrowsmith, 2009). The differences between individualism and collectivism will largely affect the workers attitude to job satisfaction, security duty and harmony (Warner, 2008). For example, the contribution norm and egalitarianism is very popular in Chinese pay structures. The attempts from the top to increase income differentials according to workers performance and competence have been largely mediated by the operational managers (Cooke, 2005). While the elitism, which regards manual skill as an inferior to formal education, resulted in low attention be paid to VET development. How has the globalisation changed the situation? Globalisation is growing faster than ever before (Briscoe Schuler, 2004). Organisations are more and more exposed to international exchanges and competitions. Managers interact more commonly with multi-cultural background customers, suppliers and employees (Warner, 2008). This creates great opportunities as well as threats to the organisations which are struggling to be successful in the global business. However, the involvement in the globalisation does not guarantee a success. How to integrate the market differences, realize the business scales and transfer the knowledge beyond the physical boundary, but more importantly, how to manage and motivate the multi-culture employees play a crucial role (Friedman, 2007). Hence, both the worldwide organisations, such as European Union (EU), World Trade Organisation (WTO), and countries, like China, Germany, UK, US, have adopted series of changes and reforms. This part aims to assess the globalisations influences on the national employment systems from the institutional perspective. Is it more convergent or divergent? Convergence and divergence debate has existed in the comparative studies for a long time. Convergence theorists believe that the development of the industrialisation, globalisation, decentralizing and transfer of knowledge will lead to a convergent business management practice. However, the divergence theorists insist that the national culture and values will resist to this change and the management practice cannot be duplicated across nation borders (Warner, 2008). The core of the debate is the management practice should be localized or not. In China, globalisation has showed its power to convergent the various practices. Studies found that Chinas active participation into the global business context especially after the joining of WTO has resulted in tremendous changing in its business law, taxation and business management. These changes make the Chinese management practices are closer to the international standards and western management philosophies (Warner, 2008; Ying Warner, 2005). For example, before the reform, the Chinese employment was high centralized lifelong iron bowl system. However, after two decades of massive efforts, the Chinese employment system has primarily established a market-driven, performance-based, decentralized employment system. Trade unions are empowered to monitor and protect the workers legal interests according to the newly amended Trade Union Law. China even tried to duplicate the German VET system in 1980s. Some of the trials failed but these movements made Chinese practices closer to G erman way. Meanwhile, some of the underlying Chinese traditional values are functioning as an resistance force to stop or slow the progress of convergence. For example, performance-based pay structure were introduced to differentiate the income differences according to individuals competences but it was mediated at the operational level due to the underlying egalitarianism (Cooke, 2005). This controversial finding consist with the process of globalisation it is a process rather than an end-state (Hughes ONeill, 2008). With the development of globalisation, the management practices and philosophies come from different countries will keep conflicting, but at the same time, more similarities will be found in the international business arena. Conclusion Different political structures and national cultures resulted in considerable differences between employment systems. Coming from two continents, China and Germany have very little in common before 1970s. However, globalisation put these two countries, as well as the other countries, on the same arena, global business context. This creates opportunities as well as threat to these countries which are struggling to be or keep being prosperous. Therefore, series changes and reforms have been conducted in different sectors and contexts in order to seize the opportunities. Decentralization in Germany has been conducted (Katz Darbishire, 2000). But compare with China the German employment system change is smaller. Since 1979, China has conducted radical changes in its ownership structures, HRM practices, legislation and laws. A market-driven, performance-based and decentralized employment system has been primarily setup. The differences between these two employment systems in terms of trade union role and VET system are still big but some similarities have been successfully identified. At the same time, the underlying long-lasting national cultures and values are functioning to resist some of the changes. The controversial findings between convergence and divergence reflect that the process of learning and conflicting will not finish overnight. It, likes the progress of globalisation, will not be stopped or reversed. Meanwhile, it should be taken into consideration that differences of employment systems may exist between regions, sectors and firms even in a same country (Arrowsmith, 2009). This increases the difficulties of comparative studies across the national boundaries. Much more efforts will be needed to make this issue clearer.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Sexualy Transmited Diseases: Hemophilia Essay -- Genetic Bleeding Dis

Hemophilia is a genetic bleeding disorder that slows down the clotting process of one’s blood. There are two types of the disorder: hemophilia A and hemophilia B. Both result in very similar symptoms, however, they are caused by different mutations of genes on the X chromosome. The way in which the disorder is inherited is known as an â€Å"X-linked recessive pattern.† Since males only have one X chromosome, one gene mutation is all that is needed in order to obtain hemophilia. On the other hand, females have two X chromosomes meaning that two mutations (on on each X chromosome) are required to inherit hemophilia. For that reason, it’s far more unlikely for females to have hemophilia than it is for males. Specifically, the genes which cause hemophilia A and hemophilia B are the F8 gene and the F9 gene respectively. Mutations in these genes trigger the production of abnormal versions or reduce the number of coagulation factors VIII or IX. Subsequently, these miss ing or scarce proteins are not able to aid in the blood clotting process which causes excessive and continuous bleeding. There are varying levels of the severity of hemophilia which are all dependent on the extent of mutation of coagulation factors VIII or IX (Hemophilia, n.d.). There is, however, another form of hemophilia that is rare. It is known as acquired hemophilia, and it is caused by one’s body producing specialized proteins (autoantibodies) that attack coagulation factor VIII. In this rare case, it is not caused by genetic mutation or scarcity. The body’s production of autoantibodies can sometimes be attributed to pregnancy, allergic reactions, cancer, or immune system disorders (Hemophilia, n.d.). Symptoms Someone that is affected by hemophilia would be prone to ... ... 19, 2014, from Hemophilia. (n.d.). Retrieved March 16, 2014, from Hemophilia. (n.d.). Retrieved March 16, 2014, from How Is Hemophilia Treated? (n.d.). Retrieved March 17, 2014, from Inheritance Pattern of Hemophilia. (n.d.). In Hemophilia Federation of America. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from The N-terminal Epidermal Growth Factor-like Domain in Factor IX and Factor X Represents an Important Recognition Motif for Binding to Tissue Factor*. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2014, from

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Restrictions on Imports of Agricultural/Horticultural Products into the UK:

Agriculture, horticulture and fisheries sector constitute a vital part of the economy of the country of UK. Contributing â‚ ¤.6.6 billion in a year to the economy and employing more than half a million people, agricultural sector is predominant in the development of the UK economy.In the recent years economic, environmental and consumer pressures have a very strong influence in the development of these sectors of the economy. The key consumer drivers of agricultural and horticultural sectors have been identified as the rising prices and the growing demand for the ‘organic’ products.In spite of consumer resistances, Genetic-Modification technologies are also taking active part in the development of new varieties of products. However the sector remains one of the most regulated in the UK and also internationally.There have been numerous import restrictions including licenses and duties to control the movement of agricultural and horticultural products into the UK.This p aper brings out a short report on the prevailing regulations on the imports, reasons for such regulatory measures and the possible ways of overcoming such restrictions to boost up the import of agricultural and horticultural commodities.2.0 Restrictions on the Import of Agricultural and Horticultural Products into UK:According to the web page of Business Link, there are no restrictions for importing agricultural and horticultural products from any other member countries of the European Union, however subject to the payment of applicable VAT and Excise duties.For importing these products from other countries it is necessary to comply with the import licensing requirements and common customs tariff of the EU.2.1 Import Licenses:Import restrictions on the Agricultural and Horticultural products are exercised through the import licenses. The import licenses may be product-specific or trade-specific. Detailed and exhaustive provisions have been made for the standards to be maintained in respect of different products.Similar provisions have been made for imports to be supported by applicable certificates, licenses and other documentary requirements. In addition to the requirements of certificates and other documents, quantitative restrictions and anti dumping duties have been imposed in respect of the import of certain commodities.Department of Trade and Industry is the regulatory authority governing the imports.The plants which carry a high risk of serious pests or diseases require a ‘plant passport’ to move the products within the EU. Another requirement is the production of a phytosanitary certificate for the import of plant products from outside the EU.The imports of Agricultural products form nations other than the members of the EU countries are governed by the Common Agricultural Policy. The products covered under the policy require a ‘CAP import license; and other items need to be covered by a ‘tariff rate quota’ depending on the origin of the respective goods.In order to ensure that the wood used for packaging of the agricultural products are treated to the international standards and also to prevent the pest infestation and diseases the shipments of the products packaged in wood containers also need a phytosanitary certificate.3.0 Reasons for Restriction on Imports:Severe restriction have been imposed on the import of agricultural and horticultural products in to UK mainly with a view to ensuring the health and safety of the people of the country as these products are susceptible to contaminations and may cause the passing of multifarious diseases.Besides the heath and safety there are other reasons also which attribute to these stringent measures of import restrictions and control. They are:To maintain the quality of the products entering the country so that they meet with the domestic business standards prescribed for the agricultural and other products. To have a very tight control on the quantity o f the agricultural and horticultural products entering the country. These are in addition to the qualitative restrictions. This is mainly to protect the domestic agricultural sector as it contributes heavily to the economy of the country To ensure that the ultimate consumers get the commodities with adequate quality standards and sub standard produce is not dumped into the country To maintain the rules and regulations in conformity with those of the other countries of the world with whom UK has bilateral trade agreements or other understandings To impose an effective control on the packaging of the goods so that the goods are delivered to the ultimate consumers in a perfect shape and quality in such a way that the consumer gets the maximum for what he is paying

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Detergents Case Essay

A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with â€Å"cleaning properties in dilute solutions.†[1] These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxyl (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water. In most household contexts, the term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents, like soaps, work because they are amphiphilic: partly hydrophilic (polar) and partly hydrophobic (non-polar). Their dual nature facilitates the mixture of hydrophobic compounds (like oil and grease) with water. Because air is not hydrophilic, detergents are also foaming agents to varying degrees. Contents [hide] 1 Chemical classification of detergents 1.1 Anionic detergents 1.2 Cationic detergents 1.3 Non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents 2 Major applications of detergents 2.1 Laundry detergents 2.2 Fuel additives 2.3 Biological Reagent 2.4 Soapless soap 3 See also 4 References 5 External links [edit]Chemical classification of detergents Detergents are classified into three broad groupings, depending on the electrical charge of the surfactants. [edit]Anionic detergents Typical anionic detergents are alkylbenzenesulfonates. The alkylbenzene portion of these anions is lipophilic and the sulfonate is hydrophilic. Two different varieties have been popularized, those with branched alkyl groups and those with linear alkyl groups. The former were largely phased out in economically advanced societies because they are poorly biodegradable.[2] An estimated 6 billion kilograms of anionic detergents are produced annually for domestic markets. Bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid (DOC), are anionic detergents produced by the liver to aid in digestion and absorption of fats and oils. Three kinds of anionic detergents: a branched sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, linear sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and a soap. [edit]Cationic detergents Cationic detergents are similar to the anionic ones, with a hydrophobic component, but, instead of the anionic sulfonate group, the cationic surfactants have quaternary ammonium as the polar end. The ammonium center is positively charged.[2] [edit]Non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents Non-ionic detergents are characterized by their uncharged, hydrophilic headgroups. Typical non-ionic detergents are based on polyoxyethylene or a glycoside. Common examples of the former include Tween, Triton, and the Brij series. These materials are also known as ethoxylates or PEGylates. Glycosides have a sugar as their uncharged hydrophilic headgroup. Examples include octyl-thioglucoside and maltosides. HEGA and MEGA series detergents are similar, possessing a sugar alcohol as headgroup. Zwitterionic detergents possess a net zero charge arising from the presence of equal numbers of +1 and −1 charged chemical groups. Examples include CHAPS. See surfactants for more applications. [edit]Major applications of detergents [edit]Laundry detergents Main article: laundry detergent One of the largest applications of detergents is for cleaning clothing. The formulations are complex, reflecting the diverse demands of the application and the highly competitive consumer market. In general, laundry detergents contain water softeners, surfactants, bleach, enzymes, brighteners, fragrances, and many other agents. The formulation is strongly affected by the temperature of the cleaning water and varies from country to country. [edit]Fuel additives Both carburetors and fuel injector components of Otto engines benefit from detergents in the fuels to prevent fouling. Concentrations are about 300 ppm. Typical detergents are long-chain amines and amides such as polyisobuteneamine and polyisobuteneamide/succinimide.[3] [edit]Biological Reagent Reagent grade detergents are employed for the isolation and purification of integral membrane proteins found in biological cells. Advancements in the purity and sophistication of detergents have facilitated structural and biophysical characterization of important membrane proteins such as ion channels,[4] transporters, signaling receptors, and photosystem II.[5] [edit]Soapless soap Soapless soap refers to a soapfree liquid cleanser with a slightly acidic pH.[6] Soapless soaps are used in an array of products.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Edinburgh Tram System Project

Edinburgh Tram System Project Abstract Tram systems offer a cheaper and more environmentally friendly alternative to providing public transport to city residents while also serving to reduce traffic congestion. The Edinburgh tramway project, which forms the basis of this paper, was initiated for the same reasons.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Edinburgh Tram System Project specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The paper presents an analysis of this project in terms of its description and management with references to theories that have been established to address the subject of project management. The project turned out to be one of the most controversial tramway projects in England. It was characterised by massive delays and changes in the project’s cost estimates. Political matters took the centre stage, with different politicians taking advantage of the controversy that surrounded the project to achieve their interests. Interest in the pro ject was mainly from the Scottish population and politicians. Scotland’s government was the main financier. The whole project was divided into several contracts that focused on specific sections and phases of the project. Other similar projects in the UK have some connection with the Edinburgh project. As the paper confirms, they offer great lessons on the management of any project. Introduction The Edinburgh Tram Network Project is located in Scotland in the United Kingdom. According to Boateng, one of the reasons for the initiation of the project was to support the region’s local economy in terms of improvement of accessibility of various places within it1. Secondly, the project intended to promote sustainability whilst minimising significantly the level of environmental damage that resulted from heavy traffic. Another purpose was to solve the problem of traffic congestion in Edinburgh. Issues such as safety and security of the transport system were also a major conc ern in the initiation and implementation of the project. Moreover, the project was expected to have immense social benefits to the residents of the areas that the rail line served.Advertising Looking for report on railway transport? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the project’s scope, the tramline constitutes of a double track that connect the city centre to Edinburgh Airport. The track also links areas of development in West and North Edinburgh. With this hint about the project, this paper begins by providing its brief description. It also analyses the project’s management process with reference to salient theories that are applicable in project management. Lastly, the paper also provides some key lesson that project managers can learn from this development. Project Description Edinburgh Trams, which is run by Transport for Edinburgh Company, is a rail line that stretches from York Place to Edinburg h Airfield. The stretch that covers a distance of about 14 kilometres has 15 areas of offloading and loading of passengers. According to Lowe, work in the project started in the mid 20082. However, the project was marred with many controversies that led to delays in its official opening. As Crowther reveals, work on a section of the tramway was halted at the start of 2009 because of contractual disputes between BSC and TIE following the former’s request for an extra funding of 80 million pounds3. The Edinburgh Council felt that the contractors were short-changing it, given that the contract was based on fixed price terms. Much negotiations followed shortly thereafter with the contractors agreeing to resume construction work before mid 2009 whilst operating within the original budget, regardless of the witnessed disputes. Later, in August of the same year, TIE instituted legal proceedings against BSC over delays in its handling of the project. In most of the disputes, BSC foun d favour in the court. It received an award of 90% of the additional costs. As McKie confirms, the initial cost estimate of the development was 375 million pounds4. However, Lowe confirms that during the signing of the construction contract, the initial cost figures had risen from 375 million pounds to 500 million pounds5. The closing expenditure is estimated at 1 billion pounds, a figure that was arrived at after considering the settlement of the incurred interest charges.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Edinburgh Tram System Project specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The interest was accruing on a 30-year credit that the committee had taken to cover a shortfall in the project’s funding. The tramway began operations in May 2014 after being behind schedule for more than five years. Management of the Project Various stakeholders were involved to help in achieving the project’s deliverables. Hence, their participation in this project had different impacts at different levels. These stakeholders included the government, contractors, politicians, courts, and the Scottish population6. As the main stakeholder, the government provided funding for the project. The government was also involved in the supervision and monitoring of the project. The project was divided into a number of distinct contracts. The various contracts were let to different companies or contractors. The contractual framework consisted of System Design Services (SDS), Joint Revenue Committee (JRC), vehicle maintenance, and supply (TRAMCO), provider of infrastructure and maintenance (IFRASCO), and MUDFA (Multi Utilities Diversion Framework Agreement). Courts also became part of the stakeholders who came in handy to settle conflicts that arose between the two main contractors. In several instances, the court ruled in favor of the development and continuation of the project. Contractors were at the heart of the witnessed delays and controversies. Change in technology raised the cost of project implementation, which in turn resulted in conflicts in terms of the need for extra funding7. Conflicts between contractors led to court battles that took time to be ruled. However, contractors also played a crucial role in the actual implementation of the project. Project planners were also to blame for the delays. The management of the project as a whole seems to have had serious challenges. To start with, the management did not do a proper cost analysis for the project.Advertising Looking for report on railway transport? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A constant review of the project’s cost raised many questions regarding the validity of the methods that the group that was managing the project was using in arriving at figures, which kept on changing. The inconsistencies served to raise doubts over the abilities of the project managers in handling the project while questioning their intentions in altering the figures. The planners had carried out an incorrect project analysis and estimations, which resulted in variations in cost and the need for supplement budgets to complete the project. The scope of the project was also cumbersome to manage. Variations in the role and part that depended on different stakeholders also resulted in delays. Delays in one facet resulted in interruptions in others. The issue of close monitoring of the project was also not well managed. The laid out structure for managing the project at different stages was faulty as it was evidenced in the swaying of support at different levels. Communication b reakdown between stakeholders also led to conflicts and delays. Project Management against Theory The management of the project, especially in relation to many disputes that arose, seemed to be in line with some models of the game theory. A good example is the standoff that was observed between BBS and TIE. The two firms were staring at each other. The first party to back off was expected to be the loser. The real disaster is imminent if none of the parties backs off. This scenario resembles the ‘chicken game’ in the game theory. Such a game assumes that both parties to the game move simultaneously as Osborne confirms8. However, the actions that were adopted by the two sides were chronological whereby each side acted in rejoinder to the effect that was taken by the opponent side. If the solution to the disagreements ends up taking an unnecessary duration, the implication is the anticipated risks will be heightened. This situation was evident between the Scottish governm ent and the project managers. In the event of the adoption of the nuclear position that involves the cessation of the agreement, with the service provider choosing to present the issue to judges, there is a higher probability of each side being defeated. However, thoughts by each party that its opponent might be crazy enough to take the dispute to such extent may persuade both of them to settle the scour. The project managers seem to have thought that the Edinburgh council would have caved in at some point in time. They held on to its position in terms of seeking more funding for the project. This situation reveals the long standoff that existed between the two sides. It resulted in a court battle that helped to solve the circumstances that were becoming an increasingly expensive affair with each passing day. At some point, speculations were rife that a compromise deal was in the offing that would have seen BBS eliminated from certain sections of the project. However, the project ad ministrators would have been given the opportunity to finish the sections that they had been working on at that moment. Lessons Learnt From Similar Projects and Their Links to the Tram Project The United Kingdom has had numerous other tramway projects that offer important lessons when it comes to project management. All of them have had varying challenges that were solved in different ways. As such, Docherty and Shaw say that they can offer a great insight in terms of approaching such projects9. A good example is the Nottingham Express Transit that is located in Nottingham, England. The project took 15 years to be completed. The project’s cost was determined in advance. Hence, issues of increased costs were rare. The best bidders were chosen to carry out the project. This plan helped to ensure that the project went on smoothly from its initiation to its completion. Another unique feature of the Nottingham tramway that contributed to its success was that it involved a public-p rivate partnership. Such kind of partnership in public projects has always shown higher degree of success compared to projects that are run or handled entirely by the government. The private sector has a sense of accountability since it bases its activities on adherence to strict business rules. It takes into account prudent use of resources and maximisation of benefits that arise from any endeavour that it is involved in. The concept of profit maximisation that is advocated when it comes to private entities plays an immense role in ensuring the best possible use of the available resources by avoiding any unnecessary wastage. Further, the private sector always looks for the best specialties when it comes to running its operations. It does not rely on political affiliations or ethnicity in hiring its personnel. This strategy helps to avoid the negative influence that politics may have in the successful implementation of public projects. Involvement of the private sector into the Nott ingham tramway project helped in availing more funds to the project as Transport Scotland reveals10. This move had the effect of eliminating the need for borrowing large amounts of money for the project. Such huge funds have the effect of attracting large interest rates that serve to increase the overall costs of the project. Successful projects such as the Nottingham Express Transit offer great lessons for the Edinburgh tramway project. One of the main lessons is the separation of politics from such projects. This criterion helps in keeping away politicians who tend to use such projects as platforms to advance their political interests. As Rodger asserts, another lesson is on the importance of including the private sector in the design, funding, and implementation of such projects11. The private sector brings with it efficiency in terms of time management and prudent management of projects. This plan ensures not only timely completion of projects but also proper use of public funds to avoid unnecessary wastage of public resources. Tramway projects such as Tramlink, Metrolink, Midland Metro, and Nottingham Express Transit among others all bear some similarity with Edinburgh project. They have a link in the sense that they were intended to connect various places across different cities. The UK Tram is an organisation that represents the interests of all stakeholders and industry players in the tram industry. The projects were also intended to lessen traffic jams that were experienced in these cities while also providing a better alternative in efforts that were aimed at minimising the emission of greenhouse gases by cars. Conclusion The Edinburgh project was surrounded by lots of controversies in relation to costs, delays in completion, and political influence that slowed down the project while hurting taxpayers. It can borrow lessons from other similar projects. The project is located in Edinburgh in the United Kingdom. It was meant to connect York place and E dinburgh to reduce traffic congestion by motorists. The project managers deviated from the project’s contract that recognised it as a fixed-cost contract by demanding additional funding. This cost implication was the cause of all other controversies that followed in the course of the project. There are great lessons that Edinburgh project can learn from other similar projects that have had significant success. Nottingham Express Transit serves as a perfect example. Lessons from it can help to find ways of avoiding issues that haunted the Edinburgh tramway project. Recommendations There is a need for more public-private partnerships to be deployed when carrying out projects of this magnitude. Such projects involve heavy investments whose implementation has an immense direct impact on taxpayers. Such partnerships will bring greater efficiency since the private sector is known for conducting its affairs with greater professionalism compared to the public sector. Elements such as expertise and extra funding that are provided by the private sector are bound to see better and more successful implementation of public projects. Governments also need to hold contractors accountable in the implementation of projects as opposed to curving into the outrageous demands by contractors who do not fall within the postulations of the contracts. Bibliography Audit Scotland, ‘Edinburgh Trams Interim Report’, The Accounts Commission [website], 12 February 2011, Boateng, P., Megaproject Case Study, Edinburgh Tram Network Project, Edinburgh Publishing Company, Scotland, UK, 2008. Crowther, G.L., National Series of Waterway, Tramway and Railway Atlases, G.L. Crowther, Preston, 2013. Dalton, A., ‘135 Changes, Â £16m Bill: Latest Trams Furore’, Scotsman [website], 12 April 2010, Docherty, I., Shaw, J., Traffic Jam: Ten Years of sustainable Transport in the UK, Policy Press, Bristol, UK, 2008. Lowe, J.G., Edinburgh trams: a case study of a complex project, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, Leeds, UK, 2010. McKie, R., ‘Edinburghs tram system opens – Â £375m over budget and three years late’, The Guardian UK, 1 June 2014, Osborne, M.J., Rubenstein, A., A Course in Game Theory, MIT Press, Boston, 2005. Rodger, R., The Transformation of Edinburgh: Land, Property and Trust in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004. Transport Scotland, Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance Version, The Scottish Government, Edinburgh, 2008. Footnotes 1 P. Boateng, Megaproject Case Study, Edinburgh Tram Network Project, Edinburgh Publishing Company, Scotland, UK, 2008, p. 9. 2 J.G. Lowe, Edinburgh trams: a case study of a complex project, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, Leeds, UK, 2010, p. 1289. 3 G.L. Crowther, National Series of Waterway, Tramway and Railway Atlases, G.L. Crowther, Preston, 2013, p. 12. 4 R. McKie, ‘Edinburghs tram system opens – Â £375m over budget and three years late’, The Guardian UK, 1 June 2014, para. 6, 5 Lowe, p. 1291. 6 Crowther, p. 33. 7 A. Dalton, ‘135 Changes, Â £16m Bill: Latest Trams Furore’, Scotsman [website], 12 April 2010, 8 M.J. Osborne A. Rubenstein, A Course in Game Theory, MIT Press, Boston, 2005, p. 12. 9 I. Docherty J. Shaw, Traffic Jam: Ten Years of sustainable Transport in the UK, Policy Press, Bristol, UK, 2008, p. 56. 10 Transport Scotland, Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance Version, The Scottish Government, Edinburgh, 2008, p. 11. 11 R. Rodger, The Transformation of Edinburgh: Lan d, Property and Trust in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004, p. 33.

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Letter that Started the Dream essays

The Letter that Started the Dream essays Hes a man way out there in the blue, riding on a smile and a shoeshine ... A salesman is got to dream, boy. Charlie says this in Death of a Salesman. He says this to explain that without dreams a man has nothing to look forward to. Columbus letter to Queen Isabella is an early expression of the American Dream and the concept of America as a Paradise. Columbus letter to the queen emulated the American Dream because it provides people the hope and dreams necessary for them to take a risk by coming to the New World. Columbus wrote his letter to create a paradise in Queen Isabellas mind. If he had just described everything the way it is, it wouldnt seem as beautiful and wouldnt really grab her attention. He did not lie to her. All he did was extend the truth. There is no way to make something that is written feel just as amazing as the real thing, so Columbus had to exaggerate the letter in order for it to have the same breathtaking sensation as being right there with him. In the interior are mines of metals, and the population is without number. In this part of the letter Columbus tells the queen of the possible riches to be found in the New World. Very much like the American Dream which people throughout the world come here to attain. The main reason people immigrate here is to make money and be successful. The mines of metal Columbus spoke of were another great reason the Queen would be interested in funding more of his trips. The money and the possibilities that exist in the United States are the main incentives for people to come here. Countless times throughout the letter Christopher Columbus tells how beautiful the New World is and makes it into a paradise. One of the most intriguing parts was when he stated that the trees never lose their foliage. This is one of the descriptions that make the land seem magical, and make it feel like a dream come true. This is an early ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Composition Essay

Composition Essay Composition Essay Composition Essay: Write It Easily Writing a composition essay proves to be challenging enough in ones first language, not to mention in a foreign language. Here you will find some tips and strategies on how to organize your writing easily and quickly, in order to get full marks in the organization aspect of your composition essay short. Composition Essay Types Narrative. In the introduction restate the composition essay topic in your own words and briefly introduce the person or incident you will be writing about. In the main body establish the background to what you are about to describe. Narrate what happened. Break this portion into 2-3 paragraphs: the introduction to the key moment, especially the key moment and the aftermath. Write all in the separate paragraphs. Use time links where possible. In the conclusion, discuss the influence a person or incident had on you and what you learned. Problem or solution. In the introduction, restate the situation in your own words. State simply that the situation involves problems, but solutions do exist. In the main body write a separate paragraph about each problem. Start with a good topic sentence describing the problem, than analyze it with the series of examples, reasons, and results. Using a clear transition statement, present one or more solutions. Use links and elaborate with reasons, examples, and results. In the conclusion of your composition essay, summarize by the restating of introduction. For and against. In the introduction, briefly restate the issue of the topic. State simply that the issue has advantages and disadvantages. In the main body write a separate paragraph about each side of the argument. Start with the clear topic sentence describing one side of the argument. Develop with 2-3 aspects. End the conclusion by weighing up both sides and expressing your opinion. Opinion. In the introduction briefly restate your topic and your opinion. In the body of composition essay, write a separate paragraph about each choice, side or key aspect. Start with topic sentence announcing your choice. Develop with several reasons and examples to justify your choice, using linking words. End your essay by restating your opinion and leaving the reader with a thought-provoking idea: After you finish writing your essay, give it a rest and turn your attention to some other task, such as writing or proofreading your summary essay. While proofreading clarifies all phrases and points, add in words that you have omitted and change words that you have mistakenly put, erase unnecessary apostrophes, add in needed. Proofread also your spelling errors, capitalization errors and comma use errors. Need Help? We Can Assist You With All Aspects of Essay Writing! If you need help with your essay writing, you are welcome to become our client and receive a professional help overnight. Read more: 250 Words per Page Term Paper Communism Paper Philosophy Term Business Ethics Paper Term Argumentative Term Paper Analysis Term Paper

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Jurisprudence Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Jurisprudence Law - Essay Example The law concept has to offer an account of the most essential or important aspects of a legal system and also accounts for the laws normativity4. It is important to establish the indispensable aspects of law so that it is possible to differentiate the legal and non-legal and also the legal validity and the legal invalidity. The law is widely known as a social institution that influences the realistic reasoning of agents. Social facts are a matter of what is considered as law and what is not considered as law; as a result we can determine the validity of the law by referring to social sources as opposed to moral evaluation. Law is not essentially obligatory because of its morality validity. Judges and lawyers should not bother with the question if a law is just or not but if there is any law of a particular issue. The law has particular features, and it have them because of its very essence or nature as law wherever and whenever it is established5. The law is a normative social practi ce because it asserts to direct human actions, bringing about a reasons for taking action. There is need to comprehend the general circumstances that would render all types of accepted norm legally valid. Judges and lawyers should consider the source of the norm as well as the matter of the content of the norm(s). This entails the general question on the legal validity conditions. Second, the normative feature of the law should also interest the lawyers and judges. Each legal norm has to be composed of a threat supported by sanctions. This takes in two different claims. To begin with, a law should be normative and norms, which are supported by sanctions of the political autonomy. Second, the close interrelatedness between the law and... The law is a normative social practice because it asserts to direct human actions, bringing about a reasons for taking action. There is need to comprehend the general circumstances that would render all types of accepted norm legally valid. Judges and lawyers should consider the source of the norm as well as the matter of the content of the norm(s). This entails the general question on the legal validity conditions. Second, the normative feature of the law should also interest the lawyers and judges. Each legal norm has to be composed of a threat supported by sanctions. This takes in two different claims. To begin with, a law should be normative and norms, which are supported by sanctions of the political autonomy.   Second, the close interrelatedness between the law and threat of imposing sanctions is a thesis about the law’s normativity. From the moral perspective, we cannot take the recognition rules in themselves as basis for requirement to follow the law. The law is an institutionalized normative system, which is upheld by an agreement among the officials (judges and lawyers) who apply the rules and who are in a manner differentiated from the normal workings of value and reason. Alternatively judges and lawyers legal principles acquire their authority from a combination of content-based or the source- based considerations. Laws are integrity law propositions, which are true if they follow if figure in from the principles of fairness, justice, and the due process of process.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Critique Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 2

Critique - Essay Example arates humankind from the rest of creation by establishing a dominionship of the former over the latter; but it is still below God who has as absolute dominion over humanity in the similar manner. Ms. Johnson states that under this model women are situated somewhere between â€Å"poodles and men,† (p. 29). So according to this pattern, men, as kings, can do what they like with both nature and women, which are subjects of the man. Ms. Johnson disputes this model. Ms. Johnson calls her theology panatheism. It’s a belief that all things are in God, as opposed to pantheism, which sees God in all things. Yet she does admit that traditional Christian theology does view God as above and apart from the world. Likewise, she does not accept the biblical Genesis story as the basis for her understanding of the world, but accepts a â€Å"cosmic history† that includes a long, slow-pace creation over billions of years, and the evolutionary creation of man as opposed to God’s act. She does mention belief in the Trinity, however, and she apparently accepts Jesus as God incarnate, although this is not clearly defined. But it is in this Creative Spirit that she most closely believes. She does seems to admit that a Creative Spirit is within the world, yet the activity she sees is not the one that we traditionally associate as the God that man can commune with, but rather she states that the â€Å"†¦Spirit fills the world and is in al l things. Since the Spirit is also transcendent over the world, divine in dwelling circles round to embrace the whole world, which thereby dwells within the sphere of the divine,† (p.42). Ms. Johnson’s cosmological belief then is not in a personal God, but in a real God who is separate from his creation. Ms. Johnson’s Creative Spirit may be real too, but implies only a belief in God who is part of that creation, a Creative Spirit that has been creating since the very beginning, but is in no sense an entity of itself. Ms. Johnson suggests that

MARKETING ASSINGMENT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

MARKETING ASSINGMENT - Essay Example Generally, most of the people blindly rush after various fashion brands only because of their influential names and the profound elite type aura of the different products that is mostly only superficial. Apparently, consumers find out the reality of such products only after they personally experience them and learn that whatever shines is not always gold. According to Kyle (2010), classic and sophisticated, Dior products will never go out of fashion since it adapts to changing styles. In my opinion, the case with Dior is completely different when it comes to matching class and quality of work with the fame of the brand name. I have never been disappointed by any of its products, be it fragrances or clothes or beauty products. The way almost every single product is perfectly manufactured and then superiorly advertised in the market after completion, is way too remarkable and obvious to ignore. The hallmark of Dior is that one is simply captivated by the mesmerizing spell of the many perfumes and clothing lines one can easily find in the market. Summing up, I would like to say that appropriately and flawlessly matching class with fame can never be classified as a trifle job and this is what Dior is all

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Important place Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Important place - Essay Example Are you interested in knowing more about this amazing place? I know you said yes, join me as we address the nitty-gritties of this wonderful place. Talking of location, my house is perfectly located in a highly and rocky ground. It stands tall besides neatly pruned cypress trees. Located at the northwest side of the homestead, my house distinguishes itself from the rest of the houses in the neighborhood. The rear door faces the south while the front towards the north. Wind movements that usually moves from the east towards the west cannot find its way into the house. In addition, a perimeter electric fence ensures that the house is fully protected against any invasion by malicious individuals. The neighborhood is very serene. Within the region, electricity is guaranteed. However, when there is no electricity there are automatic generators; this ensures that the house is continually lit. I love the location of my house, it just fits perfectly to be a dream house that I have admired over the years. The architectural design is out of this world. It is a two-storied mansion with three bedrooms, a table room, a meditation room, three washroom areas, and a kitchen. The clean finishing and the perfect match of the colors say it all. From outside, the green compound with cypress trees matches very well with shades of green painting in the exterior section of the house. On the inside, the house is sparkling white. The outside door is automated; a stranger cannot get access without a request. The kitchen and the bedrooms have a perfect wood finishing that gives the aesthetic appeal of the house. On the middle of the house is a wooden staircase; a neatly cut wooden trunk perfectly fits at the middle and connects the upper floor from the ground floor. The trunk gives the house a natural look, which makes it very appealing. The table room is one that will impress. The wooden ceiling and the perfectly tiled floor makes the house so

Art Analysis # 4 Expressive Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Art Analysis # 4 Expressive - Essay Example This is a comic painting that is in contrast with the late Pollock or the tragic vision of the Rothko, it would miss a point if seen as being figurative. Nonetheless, it creates new areas of erotic everyday life to the abstract art. The painting is an abstract that does not exists; it is the woman that only exists on the mind of the painter (Mark and Annalyn 42). Moreover, the fabulation of brushwork and color, with the pushed, splattered, realized paint telling unequivocally that which is furiously sexual. Regardless of the fierce heterosexuality that exists in the painting of Woman I, the artists who have followed de Kooning into the new space between real world and abstraction dealt in the sexual ambiguity. Indeed, closer to the de Kooning’s cartoon painting are the Oldenburg’s fantasies of the mass produced consumables sexualized and inflated. Indeed, the exaggerations made on the woman including the giant lipstick are simply a portrayal of the emotional and romantic state of the painter’s mind (Mark and Annalyn 51). In a nutshell, the painting is an abstract that only portrays the emotional state of mind of the painter. It shows that woman the painter fantasizes off during the painting period. It is therefore not a real life painting but rather an

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Tankless water heaters Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Tankless water heaters - Essay Example Adomatis (2010) predicts that new homes buyers â€Å"may be willing to pay for the cost of the energy efficient items in green construction† as a means of reducing energy expenses. Not only can energy efficiency building requirements save money, but energy efficiency can also save homeowners money by heating their homes in the winter and cooling their homes in summer with less power and resources. Energy Star is program jointly operated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy. The program is designed to help Americans reduce the cost of energy and at the same time protect the environment via the use of â€Å"energy efficient products and practices† (Energy Star, n.d.). Though ENERGY STAR ® program serves as a trusted source of voluntary standards and unbiased information, federal and state policies provide additional sources for consumers and organizations to adopt other energy-efficient products and practices that further reduce gr eenhouse gases (GHGs). The purpose of this memo is to propose a code enforced method for improving appliance efficiency via the mandatory installment of Tankless Water Systems only in the construction of new dwelling houses. ... i. The installation of traditional hot water heaters (reserve tank) systems in the construction of all new homes will be prohibited. b. Natural gas (or propane, with be the primary means of energy used for the tankless water systems. i. In the event natural gas installation is not practicable, electric tankless units with an EF rating of >92 may be used as an alternative. c. Tankless systems can include multiple installations that would then be placed directly near a hot water demand source. However, this must not be installed in any combination with conventional storage tank water heater systems. An example would be a booster heater for augmenting a traditional hot water heater system. d. Solar or other heat exchange technologies that utilize on-demand heating for hot water are also included with this code proposal. Reasons for the Change in Texas Building Code The minimum allowable efficiency for residential water heaters is regulated by federal standards. New amended federal stand ards to take effect on April 16, 2015 are detailed in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6295(o)(3)(B)) (See Table 1). Federal initiatives have been implemented to further promote green initiatives and are detailed in the Executive Order 13423 and 13221. These Executive Orders, issued in 2009, require federal agencies to acquire energy-efficient products in the acquisition of commercially available, off-the-shelf products for goods and services. If the same practices were applied to the residential sector, further gains to maximize green initiative savings would be more beneficial for the public as a whole. Table 1 Amended Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters Source: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation

Art Analysis # 4 Expressive Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Art Analysis # 4 Expressive - Essay Example This is a comic painting that is in contrast with the late Pollock or the tragic vision of the Rothko, it would miss a point if seen as being figurative. Nonetheless, it creates new areas of erotic everyday life to the abstract art. The painting is an abstract that does not exists; it is the woman that only exists on the mind of the painter (Mark and Annalyn 42). Moreover, the fabulation of brushwork and color, with the pushed, splattered, realized paint telling unequivocally that which is furiously sexual. Regardless of the fierce heterosexuality that exists in the painting of Woman I, the artists who have followed de Kooning into the new space between real world and abstraction dealt in the sexual ambiguity. Indeed, closer to the de Kooning’s cartoon painting are the Oldenburg’s fantasies of the mass produced consumables sexualized and inflated. Indeed, the exaggerations made on the woman including the giant lipstick are simply a portrayal of the emotional and romantic state of the painter’s mind (Mark and Annalyn 51). In a nutshell, the painting is an abstract that only portrays the emotional state of mind of the painter. It shows that woman the painter fantasizes off during the painting period. It is therefore not a real life painting but rather an

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Comparing and Contrasting Country Lovers and The Secret Life of Walter Mitty Essay Example for Free

Comparing and Contrasting Country Lovers and The Secret Life of Walter Mitty Essay These elements contribute to the short story’s effectiveness as author uses different literary forms and styles to connect the reader to the story. Style has many characteristics that help the author engage the reader such as; punctuation, the use of connotations, and culture. This is what helps the reader’s imagination take over, paint the picture, and get emotionally connected to the author’s story. In comparing and contrasting the two short stories of â€Å"the Secret Life of Walter Mitty† by James Thurber and â€Å"Country Lovers† by Nadine Gordimer you see the differences and similarities in style between the two authors. The culture, which is the common characteristics of a group or a region (Clugston 2010), is very similar in both stories since they are close to real life with the setting in the 1900’s. Both stories revolve around relationships and love. Thurber style is more imaginative then Gordimer which is defined by his use of connotations and punctuation, although both stories are very detailed when it comes to the characters and settings within the stories. In the short story â€Å"Country Lovers† Gordimer does a great job illustrating the setting, which is the time or place in which the action occurs (Clugston 2010). Gordimer provides details about the South African culture that allow the reader to understand the separatism and segregation the characters are living. The reader gets to feel what it’s like to be black in South Africa through the detailed descriptions of the loving conditions and treatment of blacks. The main characters in the story are Paulus and Thebedi. Paulus is the son of a farmer who was raised with the children of the black families that worked on his father’s farm. He falls in love with a black childhood playmate as a teenager but he understands that a relationship with her is forbidden. Thebedi is Paulus black childhood playmate who becomes his lover. The two begin a sexual relationship which results in a child being born. The theme, which is a representation of the idea behind the story (Clu gston 2010), is interracial love or forbidden love. The laws and culture of South Africa forbid interracial couples. Thebedi Paulus are aware of the dangers of being together but choose to get involved anyway. As the story unfolds, Gordimer brings out the imagination of the reader through the use of metaphors, which is an implied comparison between one object and another that is different from it (Clugston 2010). An example of this is when Goridmer writes, â€Å"hidden by the mesh of old, ant–eaten trees held in place by vigorous ones, wild asparagus bushing up between the trunks, and here and there prickly–pear cactus sunken–skinned and bristly, like an old mans face† (Clugston 2010). This allows the reader to visually paint the picture of where Thebedi and Paulus are at and what the scenery is. A common symbolism, which is something that has a literal identity but also stands for something else (Clugston 2010), that is used in â€Å"Country Lovers† is a tree. A tree can be a symbol for life, death, or immortality. This is a good match with the theme and plot of the story. The plot, which is a dynamic element in fiction, a sequence of interrelated, conflicting actions and events that typically build to a climax and bring about a resolution (Clugston 2010), thickens as both Thebedi and Paulus continue their love affair. Thebedi goes on to marry Njabulo, who is also black, and fails to tell Paulus of her marriage. At the same time Thebedi  also finds out she is pregnant with Paulus baby. When Thebedi gives birth to her daughter it’s obvious the baby isn’t Njabulo’s but he accepts her as it was his own. When Paulus finds out about the marriage and the child he becomes upset, why does he get upset, I believe it’s a sign of his love for Thebedi which ties back to the theme of forbidden love. The story takes an interesting twist, although the author never clearly states that Paulus killed the baby, it’s evident he did by the flow of the story. It’s up to the reader to understand the â€Å"why†, why would Pau lus kill the baby? Again, I believe the â€Å"why† ties back to the theme of forbidden love. Paulus has accepted that Thebedi will never be his wife due to society and the racial customs of South Africa. Understanding this he doesn’t want anyone to find out about the baby because interracial relationships are forbidden so he takes the extreme measure of killing the baby. One could also argue that he killed the baby out of jealousy and not wanting another man to raise his child. The story ends with Thebedi refusing to testify against Paulus in the killing of her baby. This shows that Thebedi has accepted her role in society as a black woman giving up any hope if a relationship with Paulus. Throughout the whole story Thebedi character is submissive to Paulus but the ending shows that Thebedi is also submissive to society by giving into social traditions and discriminatory behavior of South Africa. The short story of â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty† by James Thurber is written in a third person point of view, which occurs when the speaker is not a participant in the story (Clugston 2010). The form is limited omniscient, which is when the thoughts and feelings of only one of the characters are related through the narrator (Clugston 2010) that character is Walter Mitty. The setting of this story occurs in a city called Waterbury but the state is never mentioned or disclosed, one can assume its Waterbury, Connecticut. The main characters are Walter Mitty and Mrs. Mitty. Walter Mitty is someone who gets bossed around by his wife so he creates a secret life for himself. In his secret life he see’s himself as a powerful man who is admired by all, something he is not in real life. Mrs. Mitty is the bossy, nagging, overbearing wife of Walter Mitty. Thurber does a great job illustrating the relationship between Walter and his wife which many people can relate too, I found it very humorous. That takes me to the theme of the  story, which I believe is marriage. Thurber portrays a marriage where the husband is submissive to his bossy, nagging, and overbearing wife. A second theme could be masculinity since all of Walter’s dreams portray him as a powerful man who’s admired by all. The story is about Walter taking his wife into town to visit her hair dresser. Along the way Walter begins to fantasize to escape the reality of his real like. Thurber does an excellent job of engaging the reader’s imagination through each of Walter’s fantasy’s allowing the reader to vividly picture what Walter is fantasizing about. An example of this is during Walter’s first fantasies where he is commanding a hydroplane through a storm, â€Å"Rev her up to 8500! Were going through! The pounding of the cylinders increased: ta-pocketa-pocketa-pocketa-pocketa-pocketa† (Clugston 2010). The sound of â€Å"ta-packeta-pocketa† is just the cylinders of the car Walter is driving. Each one of Walter’s fantasies is tied to something that is specific to what’s going on in the story. As Walter drives past the hospital he starts to fantasize about being a surgeon. As the newsboy shouts about the Waterbury trial Walters fantasizes about being in a courtroom. The Liberty magazine leads Walter into a fantasy about military dugout. Thurber does a great job of interweaving Walter’s fantasies with the surroundings of the story. The uses of symbolisms in â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty† were not used in the traditional literary forms. Instead Thurber ties in the symbolism of control and power in each of Walter’s fantasies by Walter showing bravery, no fear, power, fame, and a man with high ranking titles. Thurber does a great job of connecting and supporting the symbolism with the theme of marriage and masculinity. The use of this symbolism is to show how Walter feels about marriage, since Walter feels powerless throughout the story as his wife talks down to him. There are many differences and similarities in â€Å"Country Lovers† and â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty†. The first and most recognizable difference is â€Å"Country Lovers† is a tragic story with a plot that builds up along with way with romance, physical relationship, racial discrimination, pregnancy,  arranged marriage, murder, deception, secrecy, and acceptance of normalcy. While â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty† is a comedy with not much of a plot. Where they are similar, both are written in a third person limited omniscient point of view. Both had themes of love and marriage but were very different in how each played out. â€Å"Country Lovers† was forbidden love and arranged marriage while â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty† was love and marriage between a husband and wife. These literary elements contribute to the short story’s effectiveness as author’s uses different literary forms and styles to connect the reader to the story. References: Clugston, R. W. (2010). Journey into literature. San Diego, California: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Short term and long term environmental factors

Short term and long term environmental factors One of the important environment factor that effect the organization on short term and long term basis. It includes changes in government policies, changes made in law and legislation, war and conflict, government pressure in form of rise in tax, changes in government and new government wants to wave out all old plans. Economical Another factor that effect the environment is itself economy of the country which could affect on shorter term or longer term but most likely the economical effect most effect on longer period. It includes adverse movement in exchange rates, increase in taxation, lower interest rate, international economy effect, monetary issues, customer buying power, change in trend and life style of people due to poor economic conditions, like possibility of business would not generate as much as they were before this which ultimately result in reduction in human power which directly effect there buying power. Technological Technology is normally has short term effect excluding some mighty machinery which take years to build and changes take place. Technological factor includes change in technology as this is one of the major factor as we have seen in now a day communication and computer technology change rapidly as compare to others, once a new model enter in the market will definitely absolute the previous one. Other factors include changes in technological legislation, licensing and patents, intellectual property issue and global communication. Social Social is another environment factor that can affect both in short and long term to organization. Social factor include change in trends, fashion, style, organizational brand, people purchasing power, religious and ethical issues. Media play vital role these days as a mean of spreading awareness among people which can be in any sector. Major events has a short term environment affects. Importance of Environmental Factor Affecting Organization: It is obvious that any change in the environment factor can directly or in directly affects the organization operations in that particular environment. Politically if the is change in government policy or legislation that has direct effect on all organization and sectors all business have to adopt the changes take place. Technological if there has been change in technology as latest version of machinery launched every business which directly use such machinery to run there business need to update accordingly in order to survive in the competitor market otherwise competitor, take lead in business operations. Social and economy factors also has important influence on organization activities suppose, if organization is doing trade with international business partners in case of war both countries government impose restriction on the trade which affect both businesses on the other hand if economy is on downfall trend, in fact all businesses faces decline in the profit percentage as custo mers buying power has fall as a result of poor economic conditions. Expectation of Stake holders A stakeholder is any person or organization, who can be positively or negatively impacted by, or cause an impact on the actions of a company, government, or organization. Following are the stake holders of almost every business: Customers Employees Trade creditors Bank Government Shareholders Investors Local community Environment Every stakeholder has it on expectations from the company or business. Customers demand high quality but cheap price products and services. Employees has there own expectations like secure future, attractive salary plus bonuses. Trade creditors demand long credit period. Bank is interested in it financial performance and business is able pay the interest rates. Government is interested in business paying tax on time. Shareholders are interested in increase in wealth which result in business generates profits. Investors interested on return on there investment. Local community expects employment opportunities from business. Business would run its operations under environment friendly atmosphere. Changes that affect the strategy Factors that currently affect the TM Mobile house is technology change like upgraded version of computer mobile model therefore TM should have to buy new software that are currently used in mobiles and computers. Second environment factor that mostly affect TM is economic downfall which dramatically reduce the sale of TM. So under tight conditions TM has to change its strategy in order to survive under such condition. Due to poor economic condition customers are unable to pay more for the goods they bought infect they demand cheap product but good quality which result in to reduction in profit margin ratio. Government demand regular tax and council tax payment regardless business is earning profit or not. Bank demand there money back, employees feel unsecure future in TM employees are not happy as they would not receive bonus for the one and a half year. Investors consider it risky to invest in such economic condition due to fear of there investment being drowned. Task2 Business Strategies, Policies and Plans Strategic Objectives The company strategic objectives are how the company corporate objective is going to be achieved. These objectives usually split between: The strategic commercial objective The strategic financial objective The commercial objectives are in non financial term to achieve company desired targets. The strategic financial objectives are to maximize the profit of the organization, in modern terms maximization of shareholder wealth. Effectiveness Is a measure of the degree to which business achieve its goals. The strategy is effective if it achieve it objective. Business Plan A business plan is an official statement contains business goals, the reasons why they are going to be achievable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It also holds information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. Business policy Business Policy defines the scope inside which decisions can be taken by the subordinate in an organization. It permits the lower level management to deal with the harms and issue without consult top level management each time for decision. Business policy in guidelines issued by the organization to achieve there targets. Effect of Current Business Plan TM business plan is to maximize the profit, growth in sale at constant rate in future. TM goals are to grow and create monopoly in area which it operates and how to achieve the goals TM together its employee as a force to achieve its targets. Owner of the business make daily progress reports form them, and any changes in plan will properly convey to them through proper mean of communication tool like direct meetings, update the notice board regarding current changes and process of achieving those targets and goals. It targets also includes increasing customer confidence in there services. TM give guarantee for its services if there is any complain in it they can get it repaired with out charge, no one else in the market are offering such guarantees. For the time being TM is moving slowly towards maximizing profit as due the economic recession it been difficult for TM to achieve its targets. Employees are working well as they are working before the economic recession but due to slow p rogress in work that is why plan are not working and planed. TM is now 2nd operating in this area offering the same kind of services, but due to size of the business TM were in lead. Two more business was closed down due to unfeasible economic conditions. Now its time for TM to improve its services likely to make amendments in the plan as customers are switching back towards TM. Which is positive sign for TM as sale will grow as planed in future because of reduction in competition. TM is now increase the volume of finished good stock for resale purposes as he is expecting increase in the sale as well as profit. TM has following competitive strength and weaknesses, of its current strategies. Strength It has large space in shop so more customers can sit at a time. Its location is comparatively better than its competitor. However its competitor is in less busy area. Workforce, as TM has two staff who can serve the customers. Its competitor is hiring only on staff difficult for him to deal during busy time to handle each clients effectively. Range of services like computer, mobile, Money transfers and property. But its competitor has limited services like mobile and computer. Weaknesses Strategically TM is retrieving high profit margin form it sales on the other hand its competitor has edge on this. TM is not buying accessories of latest mobile phone, lack of training in employees, participation in saving schemes. Its competitor has edge on above mentioned weakness. Task 3 Options for Strategic Planning Strategic planning is creating a vision of the future and managing toward that expectancy. Its operating under a mission statement umbrella that focuses the organizations effort. Its an effective process for aligning your short-term decisions with your long-term goals. Strategic planning answers the three big questions: Where are we today? Where do we want to be in the future? What should we be focused on today, in order to make it more likely we will be where we want to be in the future? The basic strategic planning model involved four steps explained below. SWOT analysis can also be used for strategic planning. Strength and weakness can show business internal position where it can stand and opportunity and threats shows external factors that will affect the business directly or indirectly. Strength Have you got sufficient financial resources to fund any changes you would like to make? Is your product unique or market leading? Does business have superior industry knowledge? Are you involved with industry associations? Your reputation are you considered a market leader? Or an expert in you is filed? Does business have good relationship with your customer? Does business have strong relationships with your suppliers? Does business have a positive relationship with your employee? Is your business Innovative? Weakness Is your plant and equipment old or outdated? Is your product line too narrow? Have you got insufficient financial resources to fund any changes you would like to make? Does business lack industry knowledge? Does business lack innovative skills? Does business have a poor or impersonal relationship with your customers? Does business have a poor relationship with your suppliers? Does business have a poor relationship with your employees? Does business have low volume and are restricted in your ability to scale up? Opportunities Changes to legislation Changes to import/export constraints Good economic outlook Expand your product line Diversify your business interests Expand into your customers field Expand into your suppliers field Expand your customer base (Geographically or through new products) Does business has peaceful competitor? Are there any export opportunities? Will your market grow? Threats Changes in demographics Increasing regulation Do consumers have a choice to use a substitute product? Are substitute product sales increasing? Is your market in slow growth or in decline? Growing power of customers or suppliers to set price Changing needs of buyers Porters five forces Model Michael Porter developed a framework, which identified 5 forces that act to either increase or reduce the competitive forces within an industry. These five forces are à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢The Bargaining Power of Your Customers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢The Threat of New Entrants into your Industry à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢The Bargaining Power of Suppliers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Threat of Substitute Products or Services à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Rivalry amongst Existing Firms Graphically presented as: Rivalry amongst Existing Firms Industry growth rates High fixed costs Intermittent over capacity Product differences Brand identity Switching costs Informational complexity Concentration balance Diversity of competitors Corporate stakes Exit barriers The Bargaining Power of Your Customers Differentiation of outputs Switching costs Presence of substitutes Industry concentration relative to buyer concentration Importance of volume to buyers Cost relative to total buyer purchases Impact of outputs on the cost of differentiation Buyer information about supplier products Buyer profitability Decision makers incentives Threat of backward integration The Bargaining Power of Suppliers Differentiation of inputs Switching costs Presence of substitute products Supplier concentration relative to industry concentration Importance of volume to suppliers Cost relative to total purchases in the industry Impact of inputs on cost or differentiation Information about suppliers products Supplier profitability Decision makers incentives Threat of forward integration The Threat of New Entrants into your Industry Economies of scale Proprietary product differences Brand identity Switching costs Capital requirements Access to distribution Absolute cost advantage Government policy Expected retaliation Threat of Substitute Products or Services Relative price performance of substitutes Switching costs Buyer propensity to substitute Comparative understanding of activity from organization If we take in to account the competitor of TM mobile house in some area that business is in good position, as no business is perfect in every aspect. If we take few things into consideration like JD has lower profit margin. JD offer limited services if we compare it with TM, but with extreme quality. Employ turn over in JD is too low as compare to TM. JD business is too innovative its owner keep the displayed products in the shop with latest models including there accessories. JD has good financial condition JD have sufficient working capital to support day to day activities. JD had obtained large credit from the supplier. It keeps his employee up to date regarding any changes in the technology. JD makes good relations with its existing customer and new one. How ever in some areas TM as a competitive advantage over JD. Feasible options for the future strategic planning It is better for TM to incorporate following option before making strategic plans, it includes product threat that is take in to consideration that if there are some new product entering the market there cost and also opportunity cost of not take it now in to consideration. What is the capital requirement to meet its day to day expenses as well as if want to introduce need products like latest models of mobile and if to upgrade the existing computers using as internet cafà ©, do TM has sufficient fund available if it has how efficiently use it. What ever services TM going to provide should be meet economies of scale criteria. Must take in to consideration the bargain power of the customers, whats there buying power what there expectation from TM and which product they normally demand for there normal consumptions. Most importantly take in to account the competitor position need to adopt those method in order to gain competitive edge, carefully identify those areas that need special attention. Identify those brands which has same quality but cheaper that meet the customers buying power. Changes in the legislation must take in to account how they affect our business. Need to improve the accessories in the shop but focus must be to identify if they were saleable or which has extensive demand. Focus on existing product present in stock that is out dated should be sold out on discount to retrieve money from it otherwise bear total loss from it. TM must keep there and its employee knowledge up to date, towards industry in which they are operating suppose TM is doing money transfers it should be aware of any changes took place in money transferring roles that need to be adopted. Improve the interpersonal skill with staff and with the customers always build working relations with the customers in order to retain business from them. All above mentioned issued need to take under careful consideration in order to make future strategy plan and setting targets to be achiev ed. Conclusion We discuss short and long term environmental factors affecting the organization, together with what are strategies, policies and plan and at the end take in to consideration strategy development models and which important areas are vital in making future strategies.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Philosophy of Education :: Philosophy of Teaching Teachers Essays

Philosophy of Education In today’s society a good, well rounded education is what every child needs to succeed. The classroom environment, the curriculum, and the way the classroom is managed are all important factors that contribute to the quality of education that a child receives. I believe that the learning environment is very important to a child’s desire to learn. Like Rousseau, I think that education should take place in a rural setting when possible. Ideally the classes would be small, consisting of fifteen to twenty students. This allows for a more intimate relationship between the student and the teacher. By this I mean there is more time for individualized instruction. I also feel that the school environment should be open and bright. When I attended high school there were no windows in the building. This made me feel imprisoned and uncomfortable. Another important factor is the curriculum that is taught. Like the essentialists, I believe that literature, history, foreign language, religion, math, and science are all very important. I also agree with reconstructionists, requiring current events and government. It is very important to know and understand what is happening in the world and in our own country. When it comes to vocational training I have a humanistic point of view. A student have somewhat of an idea about what they want to do in life. If these children do not plan to attend college, they should be allowed to enroll in a vocational training field of their choice. Another subject that is not mentioned but one that I feel to be very important is drug education. I feel that our educational system does not spend enough time covering drugs and how dangerous they can be. One chapter in a health book is not enough. I feel it should be taught in depth for at least a semester. In this country there is a constantly growing drug problem. If children could learn more about the effects of drugs, maybe it could help them to make better decisions concerning drugs. Classroom management is another key factor to a child’s education. I believe in a structured classroom environment. Many states are now setting standards that the students and schools must meet. Therefore I feel that a good mix of direct instruction and hands-on type of activities are best for this situation. I also feel students should be held accountable for their actions in the classroom; rewarded for exceptional behavior and punished for

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Spaniards in Southwest America :: essays research papers

The Spanish began their movement to Southwest America in the late sixteenth century. From that point on, their influence both on the Native Americans and the environment was extraordinaire. The goal of the Spaniards with regards to the Native Americans was to transform them â€Å"into tax-paying Christians.† This is in contrast to the idea that their goal was to eradicate the Indians form the Americas. Consequently, the Spaniards took many Indians so that they may plant their religion in the Natives and to use them as cheap labor. This led many Indians to learn the customs and language of the Spaniards so they could to be able to thrive in the Spanish culture. Thus, some Natives acquired Spanish, which was the main source of their Hispanicization; this was the notion of Indians becoming encompassed by the Spanish society. Furthermore, Indians gradually learned skills, obtained land, and sometimes found Hispanic spouses, thus furthering their Hispanicization. They now began to live in a Spanish manner and blend into the bottom of the Spanish societal ladder. This â€Å"acculturation† of the Native Americans was in contrast to the models of early English colonization. Spanish goals and plans sought to involve the Indians so that they may live in their society even if at the lower end of it’s ladder. English colonies viewed the Natives as savages and looked to them for slave labor or to rape their women. They did not plan to take the Indians into their society as the Spaniards did so throughout this era.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Spanish influence was not only apparent through the Native Americans; the southwest region of America had also experienced its affect. The Spaniards bringing of animals and use of land speedily and greatly changed their environment. Cattle and horses brought by the Spanish extended well across northern New Spain. As a result, these grazing animals flattened grassy areas and packed down soils, which broke down the lands. Through these worn down paths of grazing, water was able to ensue. Overgrazing however, left vegetation scarce and soils eroded. Furthermore, abundant grasslands and wildlife disappeared with these trends, some turning into deserts. Bad agriculture practices also contributed to such turn of events. The Spaniards set to change their environment had not realized the profound negative consequences their actions would have.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Racial purity, a requirement for elite status in Spain and its American colonies, proved less essential to upward mobility on the frontier than in core areas of the empire.