Thursday, October 3, 2019

Advertising Creativity And Communications Marketing Essay

Advertising Creativity And Communications Marketing Essay This essay will first identify the advertising benefits for the company and why companies do advertising with regard to some credible authors of marketing books. Secondly, it will investigate the strong models based on persuasion theory with the help of different examples from UK advertising market. Next, it will examine the ATRN model of Ehrenberg based on reinforcement. Finally, this essay will present a view that the companies are using different strong and weak models to attract the audience to buy their products. In this modern era of technology many companies using tool of advertising to aware the customers about the features of their products and services. The advertising is a form of creating and sending a message to certain targeted population and hoping for their reaction towards your product. Historically the producers developed a product and then advertise it to find the market for the product but in todays world the product is specially design with the customer interest (Wells et al, 2006). In the recent past, the marketing concept has increased dramatically. The companies are started putting huge amount of budgets into advertising to produce high profits for their organization. The advertising particularly helps to create awareness because people do not buy those products they have never heard of them before. The advertising is very important for new products to launch them into segmented market. The relationship between the customer and the company need to be build up by the help of effective advertising (Farbey, 2002). Globalization made the companies to expand their businesses into other markets around them. This fact has increased the competition among the competitors. In this competitive world, it is made compulsory for the company to advertise and protect themselves from the primary competition (Wells et al, 2006). Advertising is only as strong as the product and service because you can only sell poor product at once time but to sell it for twice you have to speak truth with your customers. The effective campaigns are making customers more loyal to the company. Advertising can be a strong or weak force for the company (Farbey, 2002). The Strong theory and models are based on persuasion and on the other hand the weak theory is based on reinforcement. Persuasion is a process which includes changing of attitudes and manipulated the thoughts of customers to change their believes and habits (Health, 2007). There are two types of persuasion, Rational and Emotional persuasion. Rational persuasion is about explaining the benefits, advantages, likeness and different incentives where as emotional persuasion has the same features but it can create a strong relationship and make brand most successful. When the result come to calculate the efficiency of them then its very hard to evaluate the effectiveness of emotional as compare to rational persuasion (Health, 2006). The strong school of advertising really focuses on the effectiveness of advertising. The effective advertising helps the company to grow its sales very rapidly. Short term advertising campaign is more effective then the long term. The most important feature of short term advertising is that it tells the company to go with the campaign in long run or to leave it because it will not have a further effect on the sales (Jones, 2003). Not every campaign has an effective outcome on its sales. About 70% of all the campaign raises the sales immediately and on the other hand 46% of long term campaigns have a direct impact on the sales (Jones, 1998). Strong school of advertising models include AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action), DAGMAR (Unawareness, awareness, Comprehension, Conviction, Action), Hierarchy of effects (Awareness, Knowledge, Liking, Preference, Conviction, Purchase) and Elaboration Likelihood Model. The AIDA model was designed by St. Elmo Lewis (1898) and Strong (1925). This model used especially for the personal dealing but later on it was adopted as a communication process between the company and its customers (Yeshin, 2006). It consists of four steps Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. Its very important for the company to get the attention of the customer so that the other three steps should be taken by the customer. The main issue for the company is to know its own benefits and then tell the customers with different attractive words or phrases to get their attention (Johnston, 2009). Attention can built the interest and make desire for the product. By giving more and more true information of the product the interest can be generated (Brewer, 2010). The desire only be created by showing the actual picture to the customer and make him or her desire for the product. The product features can make the man go mad for the product and indulge in the step of taking quick action (Johnston, 2009). There are many adverts these days for the customers to get their attention towards the product. Apple is a very famous company in making electronic products such as Iphones, Ipods, Macbooks and now the Ipads. The Ipad is specially made for the customers to access their emails, watch videos, downloads pictures and listen to songs. Before launching Ipad the company really wanted to grab the attention of their customers. They used their website to attract the customers for example; if anyone opens the web page then he gets a welcoming message of the new product of Apple. The picture of Ipad is shown below which was advertised on (Lazaris, 2010). C:Usersfazal ranaDesktopipad.jpg Source: APPLE WEBSITE (2010) Figure 1: IPAD IMAGES This is a very good example of how picture can get customers attention. This sort of pictures can create an interest for the customers. Apple gave the enough knowledge on their website to create certain interest for the customers. Java script switchers and image sliders are very famous nowadays. The image shows that you can access the email and the save pictures at a same time. Considering the example of the Ipad, the aesthetics and accessibility feature of the product should not only be provided to induce the desire of attainability but also to facilities the user and to give an even better maneuverability of the device for a comfortable and more passionate experience (Lazaris, 2010). The campaign ran very well through web page and indulges the customers to take action and buy the Ipad. Hierarchical model only deals with the individual response and the effect resulted by the advertisement (East, 2003). The advertising process model was developed by Robert Lavidge and Gary Steiner in 1961 that has some points difference from AIDA model. The main implication of this model is that, if any one of all stages missed out then the desire outcome will not be achieved. The first stage is to get aware the customer about the product by the help of advertising. Secondly, he or she should provide with all the information about the product so that the process of likeness can be built on its own. The following step is to create preference of the product among the other product with same qualities. The next step is conviction which includes making decision to purchase the advertised product. If all of the steps are effectively put in by the company or the advertising agency then its not difficult to make customer buy for the product (Yeshin, 2006). As can be seen from an old advert of Ariel (YouTube, 2008) which delivered an idea of Lavidge and Steiner model, this advert gives a good example of Hierarchy of effect model. By emphasizing on the problem of stain clothes the company creates awareness and gives us the problem of removing these stains which is not possible to be done by other ordinary liquids. By performing a simple experiment of comparing Ariel liquid by other liquids the company has induced a liking effect among the audience. The better results of the product would generate a preference among people whereas convincing them that if this product is selected and used it would give out better results than other product which are already available in the market. By using such a method the company leaves the audience with an inclined desire to purchase the product and try it at least for once which resulted in a number of sales for the product. In early 1960s, Russell Colley developed a model with the name of DAGMAR (Colleys hierarchy of effects) model. This model aimed to quantify the process of communication (Yeshin, 2006). The stages of this model are Unawareness, Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction and Action. This model emphasized a lot on creating higher number of sales by the help of awareness. The customer must be aware of the product and the company. He must have the comprehension or knowledge that what the product is about and how the product can help him (Joyce, 1998 in Jones, 1998). Thirdly, convincing the customer by telling him benefits of the product. Lastly, for the action you have to depend on the customer. However, your previous actions will have a major role to play (George, 2006). This model is mainly use to define advertising goals and measure the effectiveness of the campaign. Effective advertising can take the audience down to the way of awareness, comprehension and conviction to take the final actio n (East, 2003). Indian premier league (IPL) is becoming very famous these days among all the ages who love to watch cricket. These days the third season of IPL cricket is going on. IPL has recently signed a contract with ITV for live broadcasting of every match especially for UK fans. To get aware the people the ITV is advertising on TV and Internet. Recently, on 11 March 2010 ITV king cricket website showed an advert about the watching the matches of IPL on terrestrial TV without paying any money. The targeted audience is students who can watch matches in the afternoon by sitting at their homes. As ITV is a famous channel for UK audience so there is not much need for the comprehension about the channel. The conviction has done by telling the major benefit of watching the match without paying (King Cricket, 2010). The Elaboration Likelihood Model was developed in 1980 by Richard E Petty and John T Cacioppo. This model addresses the interest of the individuals and changing habits of individuals behavior. The company tries to develop the positive behavior of the individual customers towards their offerings. There are two routes in this model of persuasion. The first route is the central processing route which provides the information with high level of motivation and the customer can asses to the core features of the persuasive message. This stage helps very much in making the effective decision. The other route is peripheral route which is about giving different cues to the customer and can involve personal selling as well. The outcome of attitudes forming with this method is less effective as compare to the first one (Eckert and Goldsby, 1997). Infomercials are the best example of giving information to the customer through central processing route. As can be seen from wearable towel infomercial (YouTube, 2009), the information about the product has been given to the audience to know about the product for example, how easily you can wear it as compare to the other towels which are already available in the market. Secondly, the advert provides the advantages of wearing the towel and different ways of wearing it. The individuals do not have much time in watching the whole infomercial so its better for the company to use peripheral route for the advertising. The weak theory is based on the reinforcement or repurchases habit of customer. The ATR model was proposed in 1974 by Ehrenberg which includes Awareness, Trail and Reinforcement (Hoek et al, 2000). Ehrenberg rejected the persuasion models and argues that the step of taking action in persuasion model is not supported by the empirical evidence (Yeshin, 2006). This model actually tells about the reinforcement in the customer current behavior patterns. The empirical generalization describes as the relationship between the consumer perception and beliefs about the brands and their behavior with respect to those brands (Hoek et al, 2000). In 1997 the model was refined by Barnard and Ehrenberg and they put another step of nudge after the reinforcement (Hoek et al, 2000). The first step of ATRN model is about Awareness of the product. The awareness can be done by different forms of advertising for example promotions, media adverts, word of mouth, direct marketing and so on. For the brand whi ch is already available in the market to buy, the customer already has the knowledge of the product and its specifications. For the new products awareness is very important so that the customer should know about the product. After the awareness the customer straight make a decision of buying the product and get him in the stage of trail (Yeshin, 2006). The ATR model specially focuses on the long term relationship of the customer with the company and the customer can only buy the product if he has believe in the product or if he tried it before. The managers are very willing to use ATR model these days to make the use of behavioral goals and to create a long term relationship (Hoek and Janet, 1999). The adverts are mostly for those people who already have the product. Majority of the people use to see and concentrate on the adverts of those brands which they are using or used it before in their lives. In new markets, the image of product and awareness has to be built but on the other hand in mature markets the adverts are mainly use to retain the customers. The customers do not have any interest in changing their brands and they are willing to stuck themselves to limited brands(East,2003). C:Usersfazal ranaDesktopTradeAdverts_kit kat caramel.jpg Source: GOOGLE Images (2010) Figure 2: KitKat Adverts This advert is especially for those customers who have already tried different flavors of KitKat. The advert is actually for the new flavor of Chunky Caramel KitKat. The packaging is a designed to aware the customer so that he can answer himself what taste is going to de inside? The company spent around 7 million pounds on the advertising campaign (Frewin, 2009). Kitkat is announced as a bestselling chocolate bar of year 2009. The reinforcement to buy the product made the huge profit for the company. The sales have risen to 13% of the last year (Laycoak, 2010). Scholten (1996) has stated that the traditional models of hierarchy of effect paradigm have two major issues to criticize. Firstly, it cannot research about the market situation to deliver their message. Secondly, the campaign is run to a specific group of people which are targeted. The ATR model focuses on the behavior, brand awareness, trial purchase and repurchase if the customer is satisfied and willing to buy it again. On the other hand, traditional models do emphasize on the effectiveness of advertising by getting a regular response up to a particular stage in hierarchy (Scholten, 1996). This essay has explored the difference between strong theory and weak theory with the help of different example which has taken from the UK advertising market. It has been found that the use of strong theory based on persuasion can really help the company to grow its business globally by giving information about their organization and the product. The communication process by persuasion is specially for those companies which are diverting the business line to the different countries and those who are new in different businesses so that they can aware the audience. The communication through ELM model can be very expensive for low budget advertising campaigns but on the other hand it can be very effective for big marketers to give maximum information to the individuals or give some cues by hiring celebrities. Furthermore, the ATR model can be helpful for those companies which are willing to advertise in the same market where they are performing their current businesses. However, the co mpany should have some competitive advantages for new market openings which really help them to get successful in the stage of trail. The brands which are already well known or people are very much aware to them such as, Coca Cola, Pepsi etc usually use ATR model to reinforce the customer to buy the product again and again. REFRENCES Apple Official Wesbite (2010) Ipad images [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 26 march, 2010] Brewer, D. (2010) What is AIDA in small business marketing [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 27 march, 2010] East, R. (2003) The effect of advertising and display New York: Kluwer [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 21 march,2010] Eckert, J Goldsby, T. (1997) Using the Elaboration likelihood model to guide customer service based segmentation [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 20 march, 2010] Farbey, A.D. (2002) How to produce successful advertising. 3rd edn. London: Kogan Page ltd. Frewin, A. (2009) Trade launch for KitKat Chunky Caramel by Nestle [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 28 march, 2010] George, K. (2006) Models for an advertising agency [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 23 march, 2010] Google Images (2010) KitKat adverts UK [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 28 march, 2010] Health, R. (2006) Emotional Persuasion pp.47-8 [Online] Available at:[1].pdf [Accessed 20th march, 2010] Health, R. (2007) Emotional persuasion in advertising. Research Report. Bath: School of Management [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 16 march, 2010] Hoek, J., Dunnett, J., Wright, M., Gendall, P. (2000) Descriptive and evaluative attributes: What relevance to marketers? [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 18 march,2010] Jones, J.P. (1998) How Advertising Works. New York: SAGE [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 17th march, 2010] Jones, J.P Slater, J.S. (2003) Whats in a name?: Advertising and concept of branding. 2nd end. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe. Johnston, R. (2009) The AIDA marketing model [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 25 march, 2010] Joyce, T. (1998) The Advertising Process. In Jones. P (Eds) (1998) How Advertising Works. New York: SAGE [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 15th march, 2010] Laycock, M. (2010) Fairtrade KitKat goes on sale across Britain [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 27 march, 2010] Lazaris, L. (2010) The AIDA model in web design [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 25 march, 2010] Scholten, M. (1996) Lost and found: the information processing model of advertising effectiveness. pp. 97-104 [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 23 march,2010] Wells,W., Moriarty, S., Burnett, J. (2006) Advertising. 7th edn. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Yeshin, T. (2006). Advertising. 1st edn. London: Thomson learning. You Tube (2008) Ariel washing powder 1980 advert. Available at: [Accessed: 26 march, 2010] YouTube (2009) Wearable towel infomercial. Available at: [Accessed: 26 march, 2010]

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.